# How to use the Casio fx-115MS S-V.P.A.M. calculator Click on any key to find out what it does.

#### A user guide for Math 099 students. This site is best viewed with Mozilla Firefox at 800 x 600 or higher screen resolution.

** These operations are used in Math 099.

### To my Math 099 students

Overview of Math 099
Math 099 is intermediate algebra with geometry. It presupposes that you already know how to add, subtract, multiply, divide, raise to powers and extract roots using real numbers and fractions. Chapter one reviews the steps for solving equations with one variable and no powers (linear equations in one unknown). The rest of the book talks about graphing equations with two unknowns, solving simultaneous linear equations, rational expressions, complex numbers, radicals, and the "pièce de résistance", the "Grand Finale", the Big Boom when we set off all the remaining fireworks, which is the quadratic formula for solving second order equations in one unknown. All of this is done with an accompaniment of geometry examples in the background.
Another concept that is important in Mathematics is the inverse of a function. This would be the function that does the opposite of some other function. It can be used to undo what the other function did. For example if your function adds 5 to a number, the inverse function would be to subtract 5. If the original function multiplied by 12 then the inverse would divide by 12 or, equivalently, multiply by the reciprocal of 12. In this course we use the concept of the inverse function in chapter one as well as when we talk about radicals and powers being inverse functions.

I do not grade effort, I do not give extra points for good behavior, I do not give a minimum grade for perfect attendance. Worse yet, I do not give extra points for doing your homework, nor do I give partial credit for answers that are almost right. I only care about whether you can do math and get the right answer. Your answers are either right or they are wrong. Period. Either the Mars Lander is on target or it isn't. Either the patient gets the right medicine or he doesn't. If the lander misses the target, it is lost. If the patient is given the wrong amount of medicine he may die. I hope you understand how critical it can be for you to get the right answer. When you add ½ + ¾ I want you to be right every time.

Using calculators

Notation
I use curly braces { } when referring to keys that you press and brackets with [ bold text ] to show the answer.
For example, to add 2 plus 3 Press: 2  }   +  }   3  }   =  }   [ 5 ]
I hope it doesn't confuse you but sometimes I got lazy and combined several keystrokes into one curly bracket, like this: 2+3=  }   [ 5 ] Combining key strokes into a single reference reminds me of a horrible story about some people who die in an emergency when they couldn't dial nine-eleven because they couldn't find the eleven key on their cell phone. I hope I haven't caused you any similar distress.

Browsers
Web pages are rendered differently by different browsers. Firefox and Netscape seem to do a better job of displaying the HTML special characters; however, even if you are using MS-InternetExplorer, if you look at my  Keyboard layout  and compare it to your calculator you should be able to figure out which symbol I am using for each key. If you find anything to be confusing, please let me know sooner rather than later.

The fx-115MS is called the fx-912MS in Japan. It is a general purpose scientific calculator that has approximately 300 built-in functions but no graphing capabilities. It has a two line display and some deceptively sophisticated programmability. The top line is where you put your input, the bottom line is where the calculator displays its answers. The only tricky part to using the calculator is the funny looking circle labeled "copy" and "replay". This button also has four cursor controls for up, down, left and right.

Other keys can be used for various operations depending on the state of the calculator. The state can be set by using the  SHIFT and ALPHA  keys or by putting the calculator into certain   MODES  . You can tell the state of the calculator by looking at the little indicators above the first line of the display. Here is how to access the color coded functions associated with each key.
ColorHow to get it
BlackNormal
RED ALPHA  }
Brown SHIFT  }
BLUE  SD or REG MODE
GREEN  BASE MODE

Different Calculator Logic Types. Calculators can be radically different in the way they operate. They use different keystroke sequences to enter the same formula. Do not make the mistake of borrowing someone else's calculator for a test unless you have been using it all along to do your homework. Here is a summary of various logic types that I saw at www.rskey.org .

Arithmetic. This logic type is typically associated with desk-top adding-machine type calculators. It's fine for accountants and bookkeepers, don't even think of using them in a Math or Science course.

Simple Algebraic. This is the algebraic logic used on most so-called four-function calculators. Calculators using this logic method will have an equal key but no parentheses keys. Slightly better than an arithmetic calculator but not really.

RPN stands for Reverse Polish Notation. RPN is characterized by an "Enter" key, and the absence of equals or parentheses keys. Hewlett-Packard has marketed RPN calculators for nearly 30 years. Today they still offer several RPN calculators, including a few dual mode RPN-algebraic calculators. RPN calculators are relatively expensive, with the cheapest going for around \$60. They can do anything but they require you to totally rethink your formula before you enter it into the calculator.

Traditional Algebraic. This is the algebraic logic type used on many electronic calculators since the '70s. This logic type utilizes parentheses and an equal key. Unary operations (e.g. square root) are performed on a number already existing in the calculator's display register. Texas Instruments refers to their version of the traditional algebraic logic by the trademarked name AOS (Algebraic Operating System).

Formula Algebraic. This logic type is referred to by various trademarks: Casio's V.P.A.M. (Visually Perfect Algebraic Method), Sharp's D.A.L. (Direct Algebraic Logic), and Texas Instruments' EOS (Equation Operating System). It allows expressions to be entered in the same way as a mathematician would write them in an equation. For example, square root is entered before the expression on which it operates while square is entered after the expression. It is different from traditional algebraic calculators like Texas Instruments' AOS which use parentheses and an equal key but all unary operations are performed on the number in the calculator's display register.

S-V.P.A.M. stands for Super Visually Perfect Algebraic Method. This is the algebraic logic used on your fx-115MS. It is VPAM enhanced with a two line screen that lets you see your input together with the result. The calculator keeps a history of previous calculations which you can recall with the Replay feature, make any changes that you want, and then recalculate.

I have found instructions for the calculator in a PDF file on the CASIO web site here .

 CASIO fx-115ms S-V.P.A.M. TWO WAY POWER
 FIRST LINE OF DISPLAY: expressions, formulas, and prompts SECOND LINE: answers

 SHIFT ALPHA ↑     COPY     ←            →     REPLAY     ↓ MODE   CLR ON SOLVE   =    CALC d/dx   :    ∫dx x!     LOGIC    x-1 ³√     x³
 d/c    a b/c √ DEC    x² x√     HEX    ^ 10x   BIN    log ex   OCT     e    ln ⌈ ∠ ⌉  A    (-) ←   B    ° ’ ” C     hyp sin-1   D    sin cos-1   E    cos tan-1   F    tan STO    RCL ←   i     ENG (  ⌊ arg ⌋ X    )  ⌊ Abs ⌋ ;   Y    ,  ⌊ Conjg ⌋ M-   M    M+    DT  ⌊ CL ⌋

 M    7 G    8 T    9 INS    DEL OFF    AC μ    4 m    5 k    6 nPr    × nCr    ÷ ⌈ S-SUM ⌉  f   1 ⌈ S-VAR ⌉  p 2 ⌈ DISTR ⌉  n   3 ⌈» r∠θ ⌉  Pol(   + ⌈» a+bi ⌉  Rec(   - Rnd    0 Ran#    • π    EXP DRG »    Ans ⌈ Re⇔Im ⌉  %   =

State indicators are little tiny words along the top line of your calculator that people my age can barely see. Some states change what will happen when you press a key, other states tell you about how results will be displayed. You can click on the links to find out about each state.
[S] [A] Shift Execute   BROWN functions. Alpha Execute   RED functions. Hyperbolic Execute   hyperbolic functions. Memory Non zero value in Memory location   M Store Store   the answer in a memory location Recall Recall   the contents of a memory location. Standard Deviation Standard Deviation   and other single-variable statistical calculations. Execute   BLUE functions. Regression Regression   and Paired-variable statistical calculations. Execute   BLUE functions. Complex Numbers Complex numbers Matrix Doesn't seem to be used on this model Vector Doesn't seem to be used on this model Equation Solutions of  Simultaneous Linear Equations   or Polynomial Equations Degree Angles are measured in degrees Radian Angles are measured in radians Grad Angles are measured in grads Fixed Numbers are displayed in Fixed Mode Scientific Numbers are displayed in Scientific Mode r θ complex numbers are displayed in Polar Coordinates Engineering Units Numbers are displayed in   engineering   units Complex Number the result is a complex number, you need to use the {  Re⇔Im  } key to see the other part

Addtional indicators on the screen are:
↑ ↓ Up arrow There are prior screens in   Replay   memory Down arrow There are subsequent screens in   Replay   memory Right Arrow there are additional menu choices you can get with the {  →  } key Exponent Base Used in Scientific Mode to indicate the exponent of 10 This same indicator is used in  Base  mode to indicate whether the displayed units are: d-Decimal, H-hexadecimal, b-Binary, o-octal and to execute   GREEN functions. . Multi-Statement Mode Indicates that the calculator is executing a Multi-statement command. Special thanks to Adam Sundor for telling me what this does. Imaginary The imaginary component of a  Complex number  number in a+bi form. Angle The angle argument of a  Complex number  number in r∠θ form Left Arrow there are additional menu choices you can get with the {  ←  } key

How to test all pixels on the screen.

Each digit on the second line is made up of 7 line segments. If any of them cease to operate correctly you could be misreading the data and putting the wrong answers on your homework and tests. I think it is important to check your display from time to time. To do this, follow these instructions.

Press and Hold SHIFT  }
Press and Hold 7  }
Press ON  }
Release all three keys.
Press SHIFT  } 15 times to cycle through test screens. Here is what the first screen looks like. The second screen is totally blank. Screens 5-14 display the digits 0-9 all the way across the second line. Screens 15 & 16 contain just one digit 0 and 1.
Pressing ALPHA  } after the end of the test displays a 2. (Because it is the second key on the keyboard? Why don't the other keys seem to do anything?)

Press ON  } any time to exit the test.

I've been told that on earlier versions of the fx-115MS you only need to press the SHIFT  } and ON  } keys without the 7  } key. Of course you don't want to be doing this if you are in the middle of a calculation since this will clear things out.

The SHIFT  } and ALPHA  } state keys

These two keys change the   state   of the keyboard and determine what other keys on the calculator will do.

When you press the SHIFT  } key a white on black icon with the letter [S] appears on line 1 of the display window and the calculator enters the [S] state. When you press the ALPHA  } key the letter [A] appears and the [A] state is entered.

When the calculator is in the [S] state, pressing any key that has a BROWN inscription will invoke the corresponding function. In the [A] state the RED functions are executed.

Pressing any key will cause a state to be cleared whether or not there is a function associated with that state and key combination.

The  } (up arrow) key

This key is used all over the place to review input data as well as to scroll through output results.

The SHIFT  }   COPY  } key

The Copy Key allows you to several combine lines from Replay  } memory into a multi-statement.  } What you need to do is to use the up arrow key to go back to a previous expression in Replay Memory. Pressing SHIFT  } COPY  } will combine all the expressions starting from that line and going forward into a multi-statement.

The  } (left arrow) key

This key is used when editing the top line of the display as well as in switching between alternate sets of menus. You can tell if there are additional menu choices by checking the → or the ←   state   indicators.

The  } (right arrow) key

This key is used when editing the top line of the display as well as in switching between alternate sets of menus. You can tell if there are additional menu choices by checking the → or the ←   state   indicators.

The REPLAY  } key

The replay key allows you to call up SOME previous calculations, optionally change them, and recalculate them. I say SOME previous calculations since there seem to be a lot of situations which clear out the replay memory. If there is anything in replay memory you should see the either the ↑ or ↓   state   indicators turned on. You can scroll through the replay memory by using the  } and  } keys.

The  } (down arrow) key

This key is used all over the place to review input data as well as to scroll through output results.

The MODE  } Key.

The Mode key allows you to switch between different calculator modes and to change settings having to do with how information is displayed.

Press the MODE  } Key repeatedly until you get to the desired menu and then press the key associated with your selection. Click  here  to see a list of modes and settings.

1.  MODE  key submenu: 1-COMP   2-CMPLX
1. Press 1  } to select Computational Mode for all normal scientific calculator functions. BLUE and GREEN keys having to do with Complex Numbers, Standard Deviation, Regression Calculation, number systems in other bases and bitwise logical calculations are disabled.
2. Press 2  } for Complex Number Mode for working with imaginary and complex numbers. There are two different ways to display complex numbers which you can select here. This mode sets the "CMPLX"   state   indicator. The "R ⇔ I"   state   indicator in the upper right corner of a calculation result display indicates a complex result. Press the Re⇔Im  } key to toggle the display between the two parts of the result.
Other keys that change in Complex Mode are:  }, arg  }, Abs  }, Conjg  }, » r∠θ  }, » a+bi  }. The variables D, E, F, X, and Y are used by the calculator in this mode and are not available for you to use. You should only use the variables A, B, C, and M.
2.  MODE  key submenu: 1-SD   2-REG   3-BASE
1. Press 1  } to select  Standard Deviation Mode   and set the "SD"   state   indicator.
2. Press 2  } for  Regression Calculation Mode   and set the "REG"   state   indicator.
3. Press 3  } for  Base Mode  for Binary, Octal, Decimal, and Hexadecimal calculations and set the "d"   state   indicator.
Press 1  } to switch to the EQUATION MENU then use the  } and the  } on the REPLAY  } Key to switch between two submenus. Note that the formats of the equations are different. Either selection will set the same "EQN"   state   indicator.
Press 1  } to select Degrees,
Press 3  } for Grads as units for displaying angles.
The three choices of units for displaying the measure of an angle are: Degrees (90 degrees = a right angle), Radians ( π/2 radians = right angle) or Grads (100 grads = right angle). This selects the Output or Display units and sets the DEG, RAD, or GRAD   state   indicator. The default input unit is the same as the output unit. You can specify a different input unit by using the DRG »  } key.
5.  MODE  key submenu: 1-Fix   2-Sci   3-Norm
1. Press 1  } to display a fixed number of places after the decimal point on the screen. Fix 0~9?
Press { 0-9 } to select the number of digits to be displayed after the decimal point and set the "FIX"   state   indicator.
Example: 123.45678 = MODE MODE MODE MODE MODE FIX 3  }   [ 123.457 ]
Note: Changing the number of digits that are displayed on the screen does not change the value inside the calculator. If you also want to change the value inside the calculator then you must use the Rnd  } key.
2. Press 2  } for scientific notation. Sci 0~9?
Press ( 0-9 ) to select the number of digits to display (except that 0 displays 10 digits) and set the "SCI"   state   indicator.
Example: 123.45678 = MODE MODE MODE MODE MODE Sci 3  }   [ 1.23 × 1002 ]
3. Press 3  } for normal format with a variable number of places after the decimal point. Norm 1~2?
1. Press 1  } to use scientific/exponential format for x ≥ 1010 or x < 0.01
2. Press 2  } to use scientific/exponential format for x ≥ 1010 or x < 0.000000001
Press 1  } to switch to the DISPLAY MENU. Then you can use the  } and the  } on the REPLAY  } Key to switch between sub-submenus:
Press 1  } to turn on Engineering display mode and set the "ENG"   state   indicator, or
Press 2  } to turn it off.
Engineering display mode uses   engineering   units to display answers. You do not need to turn on the engineering display mode to enter Eng Units.

This submenu is only available in  Complex Number  Mode and it specifies the default format for displaying complex numbers. You can override the default by using either the » a+bi  } or the » r∠θ  } key.
Press 1  } to select rectangular (also called Cartesian or Euclidean) coordinates in the form a+bi where a is the real part and b is the imaginary part of the Complex number.
Press 2  } for polar coordinates in the form r∠θ where r is the   absolute   value or distance from the origin and &theta is the argument or the   angle   that it makes. This key sets the "r∠θ"   state   indicator
Note: This calculator does not handle complex numbers in exponential form like re.

Press 1  } to select proper fraction display mode. A proper fraction is one in which the numerator is less than the denominator.
Press 2  } for improper fraction display mode.
Warning: If you select this mode the calculator will give you a [ Math ERROR ] if you try to enter a fraction in the form (a b/c)
Note: The SHIFT  }   d/c  } key will switch your answer between (a b/c) and (d/c) format.

Press 1  } to select US mode for displaying numbers [ 1,234,567.89 ]
Press 2  } for European mode [ 1 234 567,89 ]

The SHIFT  }   CLR  } key

The CLR key gives you the following options: 1-Mcl   2-Mode   3-All
In SD MODE this changes to : 1-Scl   2-Mode   3-All

1. Press 1  } to zero out all 9 variables
• (A - F, M, X, Y)
• ScL clears out the statistical accumulators
2. Press 2  } to reset all Mode settings to their initial values:
• Calculation mode:  COMP
• Angle units: Degrees
• Exponential display format: Norm 1, Eng OFF
• Complex Number Display Format: a + bi
• Fraction Display Format: ab/c
• Decimal Point Character: Dot
3. Press 3  } to clear both Memory and Mode settings.

The ON  } key

This key turns the calculator on. The calculator has an Auto-Off function which turns the calculator off after six minutes of inactivity. If you want to turn the calculator off manually you can do this with the OFF  } key.

The SHIFT  }   SOLVE  } key

To use this key you need to enter an equation using the =  } sign on the CALC  } key. After entering the equation press the SOLVE  } key and it will ask you for the values of each of the variables. Enter values for all but one of the variables using the other =  } key. Use the up/down scroll keys  } and  } to enter each value, then go back to the remaining variable and press the SOLVE  } key and WAIT. Note: It can take a very long time for the calculator to solve the equation.
For example, to solve the equation A = B² + C given A = 10 and C = 1 you would enter:
ALPHA  } A  } ALPHA  } =  } ALPHA  } B  }  } +  } ALPHA  } C  } SHIFT  } SOLVE  }
[A?] 1  } 0  } =  }
[B?]  }
[C?] 1  } =  }
} SHIFT  } SOLVE  }
WAIT a long time... the answer [ 3 ] will appear.

TIP: People who had trouble with this function were using the wrong key to enter the =  } sign. You MUST use the "solve / = / calc" key with ALPHA  } shift.

Note: Special thanks to José Noriega for pointing out an error in this example.

The ALPHA  }   =  } key

Note: this key is totally different from the main =  } key.
Use this key when you want to enter an equation to be solved by the equation solver using the {   SOLVE  } key.

The CALC  } key

The CALC key enables you to enter a formula or an expression and evaluate it by substituting values for the variables.
Example: B²-4AC  } CALC  }
B? 3=  }
A? 2=  }
C? 1=  } [ 1 ]
If you press the =  } key again the calculator will go back into data entry mode and allow you to review or change the values of the variables.

The SHIFT  }   d/dx  } key

uses the difference quotient ( ( f(x+h) - f(x) ) ÷  h ) to approximate the derivative. The function requires three inputs:

1. the function f(x)
2. the value of x
3. the value of h (optional, the calculator will pick one for you if it is not supplied.)

Example: for f(x) = ex, evaluate f '(2) = [ 7.389056099 ]
SHIFT  } d/dx  } SHIFT  } ex  } ALPHA  } X  } ,  } 2  } )  } =  }   [ 7.389056833 ]
Example 1: d/dx(ex,2,1)=  }   [ 7.389054548 ]
Example 3: d/dx(ex,2,3)=  }   [ 7.389056094 ]
Example 5: d/dx(ex,2,5)=  }   [ 7.38905601 ]
Example 7: d/dx(ex,2,7)=  }   [ 7.389055724 ]
Example 9: d/dx(ex,2,9)=  }   [ 7.389055087 ]

The ALPHA  }   :  } key

This key allows you to enter a "multi-statement" which is the concatenation of more than one instruction in the same line. Another way to create a multi-statement is by using the Copy key. I believe it can probably be very useful. It seems that if you use the up arrow key after the execution of a multi-statement you get the individual statements that had been executed but if you use the left arrow key you get a chance to edit the multi-statement. There are some other idiosyncrasies but I haven't cared enough to figure them out.

Example: Here is a neat trick for generating pairs of data points automatically. Graph the function f(x)=x² - 3x + 2 in the interval from x = -1 to x = +3. Generate data points for values of x 0.5 units apart. We need to do two things at each step, calculate a y-value and get the next x-value. We will enter both of these statements into the calculator on one line and use a colon to separate them.
The finished program will look like this: {x²-3x+2:x=x+.5} where the {=} sign has to be entered with the ALPHA  } CALC  } key.
Here is the process:

1. Initialize x: -1  } SHIFT  } STO  } X  } [ -1 ]
2. Enter Program and get first y value: x²-3x+2:x=x+.5  } =  } [ 6 ]
Note: The Disp indicator turns on during the execution of a multi line command. (Special thanks to Adam Sundor for telling me this.)
3. Calculate the next value of x by pressing the equal key: =  } [ -0.5 ]
4. Next value of y: =  } [ 3.75 ]
5. By continuing to press the =  } key we will alternate between values of x and y.
Here is the whole table:
XY
[ -1 ][ 6 ]
[ -0.5 ][ 3.75 ]
[ 0 ][ 2 ]
[ 0.5 ][ 0.75 ]
[ 1 ][ 0 ]
[ 1.5 ][ -0.25 ]
[ 2 ][ 0 ]
[ 2.5 ][ 0.75 ]
[ 3 ][ 2 ]
Now, that is really powerful!

The ∫ dx  } key

Use Simpson's rule to calculate an approximation to the integral. This key requires 4 input arguments:

1. the function being integrated,
2. the lower limit
3. the upper limit
4. a digit between 1 ... 9 specifying the accuracy. The higher the number the longer it will take to do the calculation.
In the following you can see the effect of increasing the accuracy on the value of the integral
``` x=2
∫   ln(x)dx =  [ 0.386294361 ]
x=1
```
Example 1:   ∫ dx  } ln  } ALPHA  } X  } ,  } 1  } ,  } 2  } ,  } 1  } =  }   [ 0.4 ]
Example 3:   ∫ dx  } ln  } ALPHA  } X  } ,  } 1  } ,  } 2  } ,  } 3  } =  }   [ 0.3863 ]
Example 5:   ∫ dx  } ln  } ALPHA  } X  } ,  } 1  } ,  } 2  } ,  } 5  } =  }   [ 0.386294 ]
Example 7:   ∫ dx  } ln  } ALPHA  } X  } ,  } 1  } ,  } 2  } ,  } 7  } =  }   [ 0.386294361 ]

The SHIFT  }   x!  } key

calculates the factorial function. The factorial can only be calculated for integer values between 0 and 69. The factorial function is usually defined recursively as follows:
0! = 1
1! = 1
2! = 2 × 1!
n! = n × (n-1)!
Example:   5!=  }   [ 120 ]

The logic  } key

This key is only available in  Base  MODE. Each time you press it, you will get a different menu:

1. 1-And   2-Or   3-Xnor
Press 1  } to select and enter the logical AND operator
Press 2  } for the OR operator
Press 3  } for the XNOR operator.
XNOR is defined as "(A AND B) OR (NOT A AND NOT B)" which is the same as "NOT(A XOR B)" or "A EQUIV B"
2. 1-Xor   2-Not   3-Neg
Press 1  } to select and enter the logical Xor operator
Press 2  } for the Not unary operator
Press 3  } for the Neg unary operator.
3. 1-d   2-h   3-b   4-o These options allow you to override the default input number base
Press 1  } followed by a valid decimal value
Press 2  } followed by a valid hexadecimal value
Press 3  } followed by a valid decimal value
Press 4  } followed by a valid octal value

The x-1  } key

x-1 calculates the reciprocal function which is the same as 1 ÷ x. Note that in this context the -1 is an actual exponent and not an inverse function. In other words this works like x² and gives the same result as pressing: ^  } (-)  } 1  }
Example:   5-1=  }   [ 0.2 ]

The SHIFT  }   ³√  } key

calculates the cube root of the value.
Example:   ³√5=  }   [ 1.709975947 ]
Be sure to use parentheses if needed: ³√27+3=  } [ 6 ]     but   ³√(27+3)=  } [ 3.107232506 ]

The  } key

calculates x × x × x
Can also be calculated with the exponent key by entering the key sequence: ^  } 3  }
Example:   5³=  }   [ 125 ]

The SHIFT  }   d/c  } key

After you have displayed an answer you can use this key to convert it to an improper fraction, or back to a proper fraction format.
Example 1:   [ 1 ¬ 2 ¬ 3 ] SHIFT  }   d/c  }   [ 5 ¬ 3 ]
Example 2:   [ 5 ¬ 3 ] SHIFT  }   d/c  }   [ 1 ¬ 2 ¬ 3 ]
Hint: You can use the a b/c  } key to convert fractions to decimal format.

The a b/c  } key

This key can be used in two different contexts.

• When you are entering data it can be used to enter fractions.
Example: 1  } a b/c  } 2  } =  } [ 1 ¬ 2 ] which is one half
• This key will also switch results between decimal format and proper fraction format.
Example: [ 1 ¬ 2 ¬ 3 ] a b/c  }   [ 1.666666667 ]
Hint: You can use the d/c  } key to convert it to an improper fraction format.
Note: Since this calculator allows you to switch your output between decimal fraction and fraction, it really doesn't seem to matter if you use the fraction key versus the divide key. in other words: 2¬3+4¬5=  } [ 1¬7¬15 ] But if you use the divide key instead of the fraction key you can get the same answer by converting the answer from decimal fraction to fraction form: 2÷3+4÷5=  } [ 1.466666667 ] a b/c  } [ 1¬7¬15 ]

The  } key

Calculates the square root of a value. In  Computational  Mode you can not take the square root of a negative number. In  Complex Number  Mode you can get a complex result.
Can also be calculated with the exponent key by entering the key sequence: ^  }  } 5  }
Example:   ²√5=  }   [ 2.236067978 ]

The DEC  } key

This key is only available in  Base  MODE. It converts the value shown in the display to Decimal (Base 10)and sets the "d"   state   indicator.

The  } key

calculate the square or x × x.
Can also be calculated with the exponent key by entering the key sequence: ^  } 2  }
Example:   5²=  }   [ 25 ]

The SHIFT  }   x } key

calculate the x root. this is the inverse of the ^  } key.
Example:   4√5=  }   [ 1.495348781 ]
In this course you need to know that rational exponents and that this is the same as the (x-1) or the 1/x power.
So 5  } ^  } (  } 1  } ÷  } 4  } )  } =  }   [ 1.495348781 ]

The HEX  } key

This key is only available in  Base  MODE. It converts the value shown in the display to Hexadecimal (Base 16) and sets the "H"   state   indicator.

The ^  } key

Raises a value to a specified power which can be an integer, a fraction or it can even be negative. The inverse of this function is the x } key
Example:   5^4=  }   [ 625 ]
Note: in  Complex Number  Mode this key is restricted. You can not use it raise a complex number to a power.
Example:   (2+i)  }{  } and 2 ^ 2  } are OK but (2+i) ^ 2  } is NOT.

The SHIFT  }   10x  } key

allows you to calculate any power of ten. This function is also known as the antilogarithm since its inverse is the function log  }
Example:  SHIFT  }   10x  } 1.5  }   =  } [ 31.6227766 ]

The BIN  } key

This key is only available in  Base  MODE. It converts the value shown in the display to Binary (Base 2) and sets the "b"   state   indicator.

The log  } key

Calculates the base 10 logarithm. The inverse of this function is the 10x  } key.
Example:   log(3)=  }   [ 0.477121254 ]

Note: To calculate a logarithm to some other base Use the formula:
loga(b) = log(b) ÷ log(a)
log2(3) is log(3)÷log(2)=  }   [ 1.584962501 ]
You can check this by entering 2^1.584962501=  }   [ 3 ]

The SHIFT  }   ex  } key

calculates a power of  e  . This is the inverse of the natural logarithm function ln  } It is sometimes called the anti-logarithm.
Example: To calculate e1.5 press:   SHIFT  }   ex  } 1.5  } =  }   [ 4.48168907 ]

The OCT  } key

This key is only available in  Base  MODE. It converts the value shown in the display to Octal (Base 8) and sets the "o"   state   indicator.

The ALPHA  }   e  } key

e is a constant like  π   which can not be represented with decimal digits. Its approximate value is 2.71828182845904523536028747135266249775724709369995957496696762772407663035354
For a more precise value you can click  here

The ln  } key

The ln key is the inverse of the ex  } key and calculates the logarithm to the base  e
Example:   ln(3)=  }   [ 1.098612289 ]

The SHIFT  }    } key

This key is only available in  Complex Number  Mode and is used to enter a complex value in polar coordinates.
Example:   4  } SHIFT  }  } 9  } 0  } =  }   [ 4i ]

The ALPHA  }   A  } key

This key is used to refer to the variable A.
Example: To add the contents of variable A to 5 ALPHA  } A  } +  } 5  } =  }
Note: In  Base 16 - HEX mode  use this key WITHOUT the ALPHA  } key to enter hexadecimal digits.

The (-)  } key

This key is used for entering negative quantities.
Example 1: Add negative 3 to negative 4:
(-)  } 3  } +  } (-)  } 4  } =  } [ -7 ]
You can not use this key to subtract two numbers. For that you must use the -  } key.
Example 2: (-)  } 3  } (-)  } 4  } =  } gives: [ Syntax ERROR ]
The correct way to do this is (-)  } 3  } -  } 4  } =  }   [ -7 ]
Warning: Unlike Excel and some other calculators, this calculator assigns a lower precedence to the negative operator than other operations such as raising a value to a power. For example (-) 2 ^ 2 =  }   [ -4 ] THIS WILL GIVE YOU THE WRONG ANSWER ON A MATH TEST. If you haven't memorized all the differences between operator priorities in mathematics versus priorities on this calculator, your safest bet is to use parentheses whenever you have more than one operation in an expression. The previous example should be entered like this: ( (-) 2 ) ^ 2 =  }   [ 4 ]
Note: in  Base  16 (hexadecimal) Mode this key is used to enter the Hex digit A16 (value 10)

The SHIFT  }   ← ° ’ ”  } key

This key allows you to convert decimal values to sexagesimal values. Sexagesimal values can correspond to hours° minutes° seconds or degrees° minutes° seconds or any other base 60 numbering system.
Example: To convert 4.085° (degrees to degrees° minutes° seconds) 4.085  } =  }   [ 4.085 ] SHIFT  }   ← ° ’ ”  }   [ 4° 5° 6 ]
Example 2: To convert three and a half hours (hours to hours° minutes° seconds) 3.5  } =  }   [ 3.5 ] SHIFT  }   ← ° ’ ”  }   [ 3° 30° 0 ]
Note: The key is actually a toggle key - if you press it a second time it will convert the data back to decimal format. As far as I can see this is a totally useless key since you can use the ° ’ ”  } key without the shift to perform both of these functions.

The ALPHA  }   B  } key

This key is used to refer to the variable B.
Example: To add the contents of variable B to 5 ALPHA  } B  } +  } 5  } =  }
Note: In  Base 16 - HEX mode  use this key WITHOUT the ALPHA  } key to enter hexadecimal digits.

The ° ’ ”  } key

This key can be used in two different contexts.

• It can be used to enter an angle in degrees° minutes° seconds format.
Example: 6  } 3  } ° ’ ”  } 5  } 2  } ° ’ ”  } 4  } 1  } .  } 8  } ° ’ ”  }   =  }   [ 63 ° 52 ° 41.8 ]
Note 1: There is a discrepancy between how the data appears when you enter it and how it appears in the result screen. Every time you press the ° ’ ”  } key you will see a degree symbol on the formula entry line. In this example you must enter three ° symbols which will look like this on the formula line   [ 63° 52° 41.8° ] but when you press the =  } key you will only see two ° symbols on the result line:   [ 63°52°41.8 ]
Note 2: Degrees° Minutes° seconds can also be read as Hours° Minutes° Seconds. This almost enables you to do time calculations except that instead of a 12 hour day or 24 hour day, there are no adjustments made for the end of the day. So 10:30 plus 4 hours is 14:30 and 21:30 plus 4 hours is 25:30.
Example: If you add 3 hours and 45 minutes to 2:40 the answer is 6:25 3° 45° + 2° 40° =  }   [ 6° 25° 0 ]
• This key can also toggle the display between decimal format and degrees° minutes° seconds format.
Example: [ 63°52°41.8 ] ° ’ ”  }   [ 63.87827778 ]
Note: You can also use the SHIFT  }   ← ° ’ ”  } key to do the same thing.

Side Note: in  Base  16 (hexadecimal) Mode this key is used to enter the Hex digit B16 (value 11)

The ALPHA  }   C  } key

This key is used to refer to the variable C.
Example: To add the contents of variable C to 5 ALPHA  } C  } +  } 5  } =  }
Note: In  Base 16 - HEX mode  use this key WITHOUT the ALPHA  } key to enter hexadecimal digits.

The hyp  } key

This key is used to call the Hyperbolic and the Inverse Hyperbolic functions. When you press this key it turns on the hyperbolic   state   indicator.
To call inverse hyperbolic functions it doesn't matter in which order you press the hyp  } and SHIFT  } keys.
Example 1: sinh(3.6) = hyp  } sin  } 36  } =  } [ 18.28545536 ]
Example 2: sinh-1(30) = hyp  } SHIFT  } sin-1  } 36  } =  } [ 4.094622224 ]
or also SHIFT  } hyp  } sin-1  } 36  } =  } [ 4.094622224 ]
These are the definitions of the hyperbolic functions:

```
ex - e-x
sinh(x) = ------------
2

ex + e-x
cosh(x) = ------------
2

sinh(x)      ex - e-x
tanh(x) = ------- =  ----------
cosh(x)      ex + e-x

coth(x) = 1/tanh(x)

csch(x) = 1/sinh(x)

sech(x) = 1/cosh(x)

sinh-1(x) = ln( x + √(x² + 1) )

cosh-1(x) = ln( x + √(x² - 1) )

1      1 + x
tanh-1(x) = ---- ln -------
2      1 - x
```

Note: in  Base  16 (hexadecimal) Mode this key is used to enter the Hex digit C16 (value 12)

The SHIFT  }   sin-1  } key

To change the default angle unit (degrees, radians, grads) see the MODE  } Key
To override the default angle unit see the DRG »  } key
Example:   sin-1(.7)=  }   [ 44.427004 ]

The ALPHA  }   D  } key

This key is used to refer to the variable D.
Example: To add the contents of variable D to 5 ALPHA  } D  } +  } 5  } =  }
Note: In  Base 16 - HEX mode  use this key WITHOUT the ALPHA  } key to enter hexadecimal digits.

The sin  } key

To change the default angle unit (degrees, radians, grads) see the MODE  } Key
To override the default angle unit see the DRG »  } key
Example (in degree mode): sin 63 ° 52 ’ 41 ”
sin  } 6  } 3  } ° ’ ”  } 5  } 2  } ° ’ ”  } 4  } 1  } ° ’ ”  } =  }   [ 0.897859012 ]
Note: in  Base  16 (hexadecimal) Mode this key is used to enter the Hex digit D16 (value 13)

The SHIFT  }   cos-1  } key

To change the default angle unit (degrees, radians, grads) see the MODE  } Key
To override the default angle unit see the DRG »  } key
Example:   cos-1(.7)=  }   [ 45.572996 ]

The ALPHA  }   E  } key

This key is used to refer to the variable E.
Example: To add the contents of variable E to 5 ALPHA  } E  } +  } 5  } =  }
Note: In  Base 16 - HEX mode  use this key WITHOUT the ALPHA  } key to enter hexadecimal digits.

The cos  } key

To change the default angle unit (degrees, radians, grads) see the MODE  } Key
To override the default angle unit see the DRG »  } key
Example:   cos 5=  }   [ 0.996194698 ]
Note: in  Base  16 (hexadecimal) Mode this key is used to enter the Hex digit E16 (value 14)

The SHIFT  }   tan-1  } key

To change the default angle unit (degrees, radians, grads) see the MODE  } Key
To override the default angle unit see the DRG »  } key
Example:   tan-1(.7)=  }   [ 34.9920202 ]

The ALPHA  }   F  } key

This key is used to refer to the variable F.
Example: To add the contents of variable F to 5 ALPHA  } F  } +  } 5  } =  }
Note: In  Base 16 - HEX mode  use this key WITHOUT the ALPHA  } key to enter hexadecimal digits.

The tan  } key

To change the default angle unit (degrees, radians, grads) see the MODE  } Key
To override the default angle unit see the DRG »  } key
Example:   tan 5=  }   [ 0.087488663 ]
Note: in  Base  16 (hexadecimal) Mode this key is used to enter the Hex digit F16 (value 15)

The SHIFT  }   STO  } key

This key allows you to store a value into one of the variables A, B, C, D, E, F, M, X, and Y. In Complex  } Mode you should only use the variables A, B, C, and M since the variables D, E, F, X, and Y are used by the calculator and are not available.
Note: when you press the STO  } key it turns on the "STO"   state   indicator and you do not have to press the ALPHA  } key. In addition it also performs the indicated calculation and stores the answer in Answer Memory   Ans   just like the =  } key.
Example: To store the value of 2 plus 3 into A Press: 2 + 3  } SHIFT  } STO  } A  } [ 6 ]

Note 2: Special thanks to Paul Bonarrigo, P. E., for pointing out a strange side effect of this key. Most of the time if you unnecessarily press the =  } key in conjunction with SHIFT  } STO  } it is totally transparent and doesn't have any effect on your calculation. If you had pressed the =  } key in the last example like this: 2 + 3 =  } and then pressed the SHIFT  } STO  } A  } you would still get the same answer of [ 6 ]. Paul showed me a situation where one actually gets an incorrect answer!

Let me paraphrase Paul's example:
Step one: Calculate 1+1 and leave the answer in Answer Memory: 1 + 1 =  }   [ 2 ]
Step two: Multiply the answer by 3 and put the result into Variable Memory A: ×  } 3  } STO  } A  }. The correct result will be stored in variable A as well as in the Answer Memory  [ 6 ]. The top line of the calculator will show: Ans × 3 → A  }
HOWEVER, if you get into the habit of (unnecessarily) pressing the =  } key you will end up storing an incorrect value into A.
Here's how it works. Let's say that in step two you use this sequence of keystrokes: × 3  } =  } STO  } A  } =  } then you will get the answer of 54. The reason for this is that you are actually recalculating the expression Ans × 3  } three separate times and each time you are updating the value of   Ans   Answer Memory.

• When you press the =  } key the first time you get the answer for Ans × 3  }, or 6, which is stored in the Answer Memory replacing the value of 2.
• When you press STO  } A  }, you are recalculating Ans × 3  } , which is now 6 × 3, and the value 18 is stored in variable A and Answer Memory.
• Pressing the =  } key at the end causes the calculator to re-execute the entire instruction Ans × 3 → A  } with the latest value for   Ans   which is now 18 and storing the result of 54 into variable A and the Answer Memory.
In other words, if you are using the   Ans   value in your expression you have to remember that every time you press any of the SHIFT  } %  } , M+  } , SHIFT  } M-  }, or SHIFT  } STO  } keys you are recalculating the expression with a new value for   Ans  .

The RCL  } key

Pressing this key sets the "RCL"   state   indicator and lets you display the value of a variable without having to press the ALPHA  } key.
Example:   RCL  } A  } displays the value of the variable  A

The SHIFT  }   ←ENG  } key

This key takes a result and displays it as a value in the range (.010-9.99) multiplied by a power of ten that is divisible by three. Look at the ENG  } key which shifts the value into a different range.
Example: [ 1234567890 ] SHIFT  }   ← ENG  }   [ 1.23456789 ×1009 ]
Pressing the ←ENG  } key additional times divides the scale by 1000 each time until the result would be zero.

Actually the whole thing makes a lot more sense if you turn engineering units   display   on.

The i  } key

This key is only available in  Complex Number  Mode and is used for entering the imaginary number i.
Note: This key looks like it would use the ALPHA  } key. It doesn't. However you can use it either with or without the SHIFT  } key.

The ENG  } key

This key takes a result and displays it as a value in the range (1-999) multiplied by a power of ten that is divisible by 3. Look at the SHIFT  }   ←ENG  } key which shifts the answer into a different range.
Example: [ 1234567890 ] ENG  }   [ 1.23456789 ×1009 ]

Each additional press of the key multiplies the range by 1000 until the result would exceed ten digits.

Actually the whole thing makes a lot more sense if you turn engineering units   display   on.

The (  } and )  } keys

Parentheses serve to group a portion of an expression into a separate basket which is evaluated before things that are outside the basket. In this way they serve to change the natural order of operations.
Example 1: 2×3+4=  }   [ 10 ]
Example 2: (2×3)+4=  }   [ 10 ]
Example 3: 2×(3+4)=  }   [ 14 ]

The SHIFT  }   arg  } key

This key is only available in  Complex Number  Mode. It calculates the argument of the complex number - that is it calculates the principle angle θ in the polar coordinates representation of a complex number.
Example: arg(3+4i)=  }   [ 53.13010235 ] since 3+4i is equal to 5∠53.13010235 in r∠θ form. See Abs  } for the value of r or » r∠θ  } to get both values.

The ALPHA  }   X  } key

This key is used to refer to the variable X.

The SHIFT  }   Abs  } key

This key is only available in  Complex Number  Mode and calculates the polar r coordinate for a complex number. The coordinate r is the absolute value of a + bi which is given by r = √(a² + b²)
Example: abs(3+4i)=  }   [ 5 ] since 3+4i is equal to 5∠53.13010235. in r∠θ form. See arg  } for the value of θ or » r∠θ  } to get both values.

The SHIFT  }   ;  } key

This key allows you to enter multiple occurrences of the same data point in  Standard Deviation  and  Regression  calculations.

The ALPHA  }   Y  } key

This key is used to refer to the variable Y

The ,  } key

This key separates the parameters in a multi parameter function.

The SHIFT  }   Conjg  } key

This key is only available in  Complex Number  Mode. It calculates the complex conjugate of a value.
Example: Conjg(1+2i)=  }   [ 1 ]
SHIFT  }   Re⇔Im  }   [ -2i ]

The SHIFT  }   M-  } key

This Key allows you to subtract from memory M.
To see how this key might be used, see the Example that follows the M+  } key.

The ALPHA  }   M  } key

This key is used to refer to the variable M.
Memory M is a special location. To see how it is used, see the Example that follows the M+  } key. Whenever the contents of this location are non zero the "M"   state   indicator is turned on.

The M+  } key

This Key allows you to add to memory M. Memory Location M is a special memory location since it can be used to accumulate the results of other calculations. Notice that in addition to adding to the variable M, this key also acts as the equal key.

Example: Suppose you buy 2 apples at .35 each, 1 lemon for .30, 4 pears at .45 each and return 3 bananas for which you will get a .25 credit each for a net cost of [ 2.05 ]

Clear M: 0  } SHIFT  } STO  } M  } [ 0 ]
apples: 2  } ×  } .35  } M+  } [ 0.7 ]
lemon: .3  } M+  } [ 0.3 ]
pears: 4  } ×  } .45  } M+  } [ 1.8 ]
bananas: 3  } ×  } .25  } SHIFT  } M-  } [ 0.75 ]
total: RCL  } M  } [ 2.05 ]

The DT  } key

This key is used to enter data in  Standard Deviation  and  Regression  calculations.

The SHIFT  }   CL  } key

This key allows you to delete data that has been entered in  Standard Deviation  and  Regression  mode. Use the } and  }keys to find a data item.

The 7  } key

Use this key to enter the digit seven into an expression.

The 8  } key

Use this key to enter the digit eight into an expression.

The 9  } key

Use this key to enter the digit nine into an expression.

The SHIFT  }   INS  } key

This is a toggle key that shifts between insert and overwrite mode. The calculator is normally in overwrite mode.
If you want to insert characters into the expression line you need to use the  } and  } keys to move the cursor and then press the SHIFT  }   INS  } key. This will change the cursor into a rectangle shape and any subsequent keystrokes will be inserted into the input line at the cursor position.

The DEL  } key

This key will delete a character/digit/function and shift the rest of the characters to the left. If the calculator is in overwrite mode (blinking underline cursor) it will delete the character under the cursor. If the calculator is in   insert mode   (blinking square cursor) the DEL key will delete the character immediately to the left of the current cursor position.
Hint: Use the  } and  } keys to move the cursor so it is immediately to the right of the character you want to delete.

The SHIFT  }   OFF  } key

The calculator has an Auto-Off function which turns the calculator off after six minutes of inactivity. If you want to turn the calculator off manually you can do this with the off key.

The AC  } key

I have no idea what AC might stand for. In the both the polynomial solver and the linear equation solver it sends you back to input for the first coefficient, but it does not Clear Anything.

The 4  } key

Use this key to enter the digit four into an expression.

The 5  } key

Use this key to enter the digit five into an expression.

The 6  } key

Use this key to enter the digit six into an expression.

The SHIFT  }   nPr  } key

This key calculates the number of permutations of (n) things taken (r) at a time. The formula for this operation is:

```         n !
nPr = -------
(n-k)!
```

Example: to calculate 7P4 = [ 840 ]
Press: 7  } SHIFT  } nPr  } 4  } =  }   [ 840 ]

The ×  } key

Performs multiplication. This calculator allows you to use implied multiplication without the ×  } key as is done in algebra. Multiplication has a precedence higher than that of addition but lower than exponentiation.
Example: 5+4×3^2=  } will be evaluated as 5+(4×(3^2))=  } [ 41 ]

The SHIFT  }   nCr  } key

This key calculates the number of combinations of (n) things taken (r) at a time. The formula for this operation is:

```          n !
nCr = ------------
(n-k)!(k)!
```
nCr is sometimes written as:
 ( n ) r
Example: to calculate 10C4
Press: 1  } 0  } SHIFT  } nCr  } 4  } =  } [ 210 ]

The ÷  } key

Performs division. Division by ZERO will give you a [ Math ERROR ] When entering complex fractions into your calculator it is very important to remember operator precedence rules and to use parentheses.
Example:

``` 3 + 4
-------
5 + 6
```
You MUST enter (3+4)÷(5+6)=  }   [ 0.63636363636 ]
If you leave out the parentheses you will get: 3+4÷5+6=  }   [ 9.8 ] because division has a higher precedence than addition. In other words the calculator will act as if you had entered 3+(4÷5)+6=  }   [ 9.8 ]

The SHIFT  }   S-SUM  } key

This key is used in  Standard Deviation  and  Regression  calculations.

The 1  } key

Use this key to enter the digit one into an expression or to select option 1 on a menu.

The SHIFT  }   S-VAR  } key

This key is used in  Standard Deviation  and  Regression  calculations.

The 2  } key

Use this key to enter the digit two into an expression or to select option 2 on a menu.

The SHIFT  }   DISTR  } key

This key is used in  Standard Deviation  and  Regression  calculations involving the normal distribution.

The 3  } key

Use this key to enter the digit three into an expression or to select option 3 on a menu.

The SHIFT  }   » r∠θ  } key

This key is only available in  Complex Number  Mode and converts a complex number into polar coordinate form. You can use the » a+bi  } to convert it to a+bi form.
Example: 3+4i » r∠θ=  }   [ 5 ] since 3+4i is equal to 5∠53.13010235 in r∠θ form. To see the angle theta you need to press the SHIFT  }   Re⇔Im  } key   [ ∠ 53.13010235 ] See the Abs  } key for the value of r alone or the arg  } key for the value of θ

The SHIFT  }   Pol (  } key

This function converts rectangular coordinates to polar coordinates and leaves the answer (r) in location   E   and (θ) in location   F  . The value this function returns is the (r) coordinate. The inverse of this function is the Rec(  }key.

The +  } key

This key is normally used for the operation of adding two quantities but it can also be used to specify a positive value.
Example: +3×+4+5=  } [ 17 ]

The SHIFT  }   » a+bi  } key

This key is only available in  Complex Number  Mode and it causes a complex number to be displayed in Cartesian a+bi form. You can use the » r∠θ  } key to convert it to r∠θ form

The SHIFT  }   Rec (  } key

This function converts polar coordinates to rectangular coordinates and leaves the answer (x) in location   E   and (y) in location   F  . The value this function returns is the (x) coordinate. The inverse of this function is the Pol(  }key.

-  } key

Use this key to subtract one value from an other.
Example: 6-2=  } [ 4 ]
Note Sometimes this key can specify a negative value as in: -6*2=  } [ -12 ], however you should avoid doing this since you may get some unexpected results. For example if the   Ans   answer memory is not zero and you press -  } 3  } you will actually get Ans-3  }. The correct key for negating a value is the (-)  } key.

The SHIFT  }   Rnd  } key

This key only works in  Fixed  Display mode. What it does is to round off the internal value of your data to match the number of places you are displaying. Pressing this key will not change what you see so I really can't show you an example.

The 0  } key

Use this key to enter the digit zero into an expression or to select option 0 on a menu.

The SHIFT  }   Ran#  } key

This function generates a three digit pseudo random number between zero and 1.
Example 1:   Ran#  }  =  }   [0.535] (Note: your results may vary)
Example 2:   To simulate rolling a dice:

• Change the numeric display to Fix 0  }
• enter the expression .5+6Ran#  } and
• roll the dice: =  }   [ 5 ]
• roll it again: =  }   [ 3 ]

The  } key

Use this key to enter a decimal point into an expression.

The SHIFT  }   π  } key

The symbol π represents the ratio of the circumference of a circle divided by its diameter. The approximate value is 3.1415926535897932384626433. Incidentally, you should NEVER use the fraction 22/7 to approximate π on a scientific calculator since it only gives you the first two digits after the decimal point. The fraction 3927/1250 gives you a slightly better approximation but even that is only good to three decimal places. For a more precise value you can click  here

The EXP  } key

This key is used for entering values using scientific notation.
Example: 2  }  } 3  } { EXP } 4  } =  }   [ 23,000.0 ]

The SHIFT  }   DRG »  } key

This key works sort of backwards. When you press this key you are selecting the INPUT units.
The Output or display units are controlled by the MODE  } key.
In other words, if you want to convert degrees to radians, you first need to use the MODE  } key to set the display mode to radians.
Then you enter the number of degrees followed by the DRG »  } key followed by the 1  } key followed by the =  } key.
Example: Suppose you are set up to work in degrees but for some reason you need to take the Sin(50 Grads). If you remember the conversion factor (360 degrees = 400 Grads) you can convert the Grads to degrees by multiplication: sin(50×360÷400)=  }   [ 0.707106781 ]. Or you could have the calculator do the conversion for you: sin  } (  } 50  } SHIFT  } DRG »  } 3  } )  } =  } [ 0.707106781 ]

The Ans  } key

This key recalls the contents of answer memory for use in subsequent calculations.
The Answer memory is automatically updated whenever you press the =  } key. Answer memory contents are also updated whenever you press the following keys: SHIFT  } %  } , M+  } , SHIFT  } M-  }, or SHIFT  } STO  } followed by a letter A-F or M or X or Y.
Answer memory is not updated if the operation results in an error.

The SHIFT  }   Re⇔Im  } key

This key is only available in  Complex Number  or   Equation  Mode and is used to toggle between the real and the imaginary part of an answer.
Example:   2+3i=  } [ 2 ] SHIFT  }   Re⇔Im  } [ 3 i ]
Note: If the display  has been set to   polar coordinates   r∠θ then this key will toggle between the values of r and θ

The SHIFT  }   %  } key

This key is not available in  Complex Number  Mode. In  Computational  Mode it does a number of things some of which are counterintuitive (for me).
Its basic functionality is to display a % symbol in the input, act as the =  } key and multiply the answer by 100.
So, for example, if you want 30% of 250 you would press:
250 × 30  }   {  SHIFT  }   %  } and the answer would be[ 75 ].
However I have no idea what is the meaning of 250 + 30 SHIFT  }   %  } and why the answer is[ 933.3333333 ]

The =  } key

This key operates as the Enter/Execute key. It causes the calculator to evaluate the information entered on the first line of the display and show the answer on the second line. Every time you press this key it will re-evaluate the expression. If the expression on the first line uses Ans  } or it is a multi-statement that changes memory you can actually do some pretty neat things. See the examples following the Ran#  } and :  } keys.
Do not use this key if you want to enter an equation into the calculator to be solved with the SHIFT  } SOLVE  } key. You should use the ALPHA  }   =  } key for that purpose.

Standard Deviation

Use the  MODE  key to go into Standard Deviation mode for calculations involving certain statistical values and the normal distribution. Standard Deviation mode activates the BLUE keys. There are two phases to this calculation:

1. Data Entry
• Always start by clearing statistical memory: SHIFT  } CLR  } 1  } =  }
• To enter a new data value, enter the data followed by the DT  } key. The calculator will respond with the number of data values that have been input. Warning: if you press DT  } twice you will have entered the same value twice.
• If you want to enter the same value multiple times without having to press the DT  } key that many times, you can enter the data value followed by the semicolon key followed by the number of entries you want and then press the DT  } key.
Example: To input the value 3.5 five times press: 3.5  } SHIFT  } ;  } 5  } DT  }
• You can review the data by using the  } and  } cursor keys. Be careful:
• If you press the =  } key while reviewing data you will be replace existing data.
• If you press the DT  } key you will be entering new data
• To delete a value that you are displaying press SHIFT  } CL  }
• if you input too many data values the calculator will give you an error message.
2. Display Calculations
To switch from data entry to display calculation mode you must press the AC  } key. If you forget to do this you will mess up your input data.
In Standard Deviation Mode there are three keys you can use for retrieving the results of calculations:
• SHIFT  } S-SUM  }
•  1- Σx²   Sum of squares of x values
•  2- Σx   Sum of x values
•  3- n   Number of Data items
• SHIFT  } S-VAR  }
•  1- X-bar   X Arithmetic mean
•  2- n   Population Standard deviation
•  3- n-1   Sample Standard deviation
• SHIFT  } DISTR  }
•  1- P(   where P(t) is the Probability that the normalized variate is less than t
•  2- Q(   where Q(t) is one half the Probability that the absolute value of the normalized variate is less than t
•  3- R(   where R(t) is the Probability that the normalized variate is greater than t
•  4- →t   convert an x value to the normalized variate t
Note the following relationships:
• P(t) + R(t) = 1
• P(0) = 0.5
• P( |t| ) = Q( |t| ) + 0.5
• t = ( x - x-bar ) ÷ ( σn )
• t is sometimes written in terms of σ units.
Typically you might combine these functions.
For example, to calculate the probability of ( X < 7 ) for a given system, you would want to calculate P ( 7 →t ) and it would be keyed like this:
SHIFT  } DISTR  } 1  } 7  } SHIFT  } DISTR  } 4  } )  } =  }

To go back to review or change the input data, press the  } or  } cursor keys.

Example:

Switch to SD Mode,

MODE  } MODE  } 1  }

clear statistical memory,
SHIFT  } CLR  } 1  } =  }

enter the data points: 3, 4, 5, 5
Each time you press the DT  } key the calculator will display the number of data points you have entered.
3  } DT  } 4  } DT  } 5  } SHIFT  } ;  } 2  } DT  } [ n=     4 ]
switch to output mode:
AC  } [ 0 ]
After you press the AC  } key the calculator will display zero and you can request the results

Regression Calculation

Use the  MODE  key to go into Regression Calculation mode. When you enter REG mode you can select one of three regression calculations or switch to a second menu using the right cursor arrow for an additional three choices:
 Lin Log Exp → 1 2 3
 → ←
 ← Pwr Inv Quad 1 2 3
Here are the regression formulas for each of these:
 • Linear y = A + Bx • Logarithmic y = A + B ln(x) • Exponential y = A · e(B · x)ln(y) = ln(A) + Bx • Power y = A · xBln(y) = ln(A) + B ln(x) • Inverse (or Reciprocal) y = A + B · ( 1/x ) • Quadratic y = A + B x + C x²
Regression mode activates the BLUE keys.

Note 1: The names of the quadratic regression coefficients (A, B, C) are not consistent with the names used in the second degree equation solver. I guess they wanted to use the same names for the coefficients in the linear regression as they used for the quadratic regression and they didn't want to use y = Bx + C for linear regression. In other words, read the screens carefully.

Note 2: I have not been able to find any way of saving the data points and reusing them for different types of regression calculations. It appears that if you want to switch to a different type of regression you need to reenter all the data points.

Example: to do Quadratic regression you would press:

MODE  } MODE  } 2  }  } 3  }

Once you have selected the type of regression, there are two phases to regression calculations:

1. Data Entry
• Always start by clearing statistical memory: SHIFT  } CLR  } 1  } =  }
• Enter data values: { x-value } ,  } { y-value } DT  }. The calculator will respond with the number of data values that have been input so far. Warning: if you press DT  } twice you will have entered the same set of values twice.
• If you want to enter the same value multiple times without having to press the DT  } key that many times, you can enter the data values followed by the semicolon key followed by the number of entries you want.
Example: to enter the data point ( 3 , 4 ) five times you would press:
3  } ,  } 4  } SHIFT  } ;  } 5  } DT  } [ 5 ]
• You can review the data by using the  } and  } cursor keys. Be careful:
• If you press the =  } key while reviewing data you will be replace existing data.
• If you press the DT  } key you will be entering new data
• To delete a value that you are displaying press SHIFT  } CL  }
• if you input too many data values the calculator will give you an error message.
2. Display Calculations
To switch from data entry to display calculation mode you must press the AC  } key. If you forget to do this you will mess up your input data. Available calculations are based on the type of regression calculation you are doing.
In Regression Mode you will probably only use two keys to retrieve the results of your calculations although the DISTR key is available and can be used to obtain probabilities associated with the distribution of the x values.
• SHIFT  } S-SUM  }
•  1- Σx²   Sum of squares of x values
•  2- Σx   Sum of x values
•  3- n   Number of Data items
• right cursor to the second menu
•  1- Σy²   Sum of squares of y values
•  2- Σy   Sum of y values
•  3- Σxy   Sum of x time y values
• for quadratic regression you can also right cursor to a third menu
•  1- Σx³   Sum of cubes of x values
•  2- Σx²y   Sum of x squared times y values
•  3- Σx4   Sum of fourth powers of x values
• SHIFT  } S-VAR  }
•  1- X-bar   X Arithmetic mean
•  2- n   X Population Standard deviation
•  3- n-1   X Sample Standard deviation
• right cursor to the second menu
•  1- Y-bar   Y Arithmetic mean
•  2- n   Y Population Standard deviation
•  3- n-1   Y Sample Standard deviation
• right cursor to the third menu
•  1- A   Regression coefficient A (check appropriate regression formula above)
•  2- B   Regression coefficient B (check appropriate regression formula above)
•  3 (quadratic) - C   Regression coefficient C for Quadratic Regression formula
•  3 (non-quadratic) - r   Coefficient of Correlation for all other Regression formulas
• right cursor to the fourth menu. This version is for Quadratic Regression only. The next menu down is the version used for all other regression formulas.
•  1- X1-hat   This is a function for converting a y-value to one of the corresponding x-values using the inverse of the quadratic regression formula.
•  2- X2-hat   This is a function for converting a y-value to the other corresponding x-value using the inverse of the quadratic regression formula.
•  3- Y-hat   This is a function for converting an x-value to the corresponding y-value using the quadratic regression formula.
• this version of the fourth menu is for all other regression formulas
•  1- X-hat   This is a function for converting a y-value to the corresponding x-value using the inverse of the appropriate regression formula above.
•  2- Y-hat   This is a function for converting ax x-value to the corresponding y-value using the appropriate regression formula above

To go back to review or change the input data, press the  } or  } cursor keys.

Example:

Use Linear Regression to determine a linear function f(x) that approximates the points: (3,4), (4,6), (5,5), (6,8), (7,7) Use this function to estimate the value of f(5.5)

Switch to REG Mode Linear Regression,

MODE  } MODE  } 2  } 1  }

clear statistical memory,

SHIFT  } CLR  } 1  } =  }

enter the data points which are pairs of (x, y) values.

3,4  } DT  } 4,6  } DT  } 5,5  } DT  } 6,8  } DT  } 7,7  } DT  }  [ n= 5 ]
Each time you press the DT  } key the calculator will display the number of data points you have entered.

switch to output mode:

AC  } [ 0 ]
After you press the AC  } key the calculator will display zero and you can request the results.

Calculate the values of A and B to get the linear regression function: f(x) = A + Bx

SHIFT  } S-VAR  }  }  } 1  } =  } [ A     2 ]
SHIFT  } S-VAR  }  }  } 2  } =  } [ B     0.8 ]
We have A=2 and B=0.8 so the function f(x) is 2 + 0.8x

Calculate the value of f(5.5) by using the y-hat function:

5.5  } SHIFT  } S-VAR  }  } }  } 2  } =  }  [ 6.4 ]

Base Mode

Use the  MODE  key to go into Base mode. In this mode the calculator activates the Oct  } Dec  } Hex  } and Bin  } keys and also the  LOGIC  menus which allow you to do computer math. Here are some general rules.

• You can specify the number system in which output values are displayed. The state  } indicator shows what state you have selected (d-Decimal, H-hexadecimal, b-Binary, o-octal.) The default input base is the same as the output display base. Note that input values are only interpreted when you actually press the =  } key. If you want to override the default input base to mix input bases you will need to use the LOGIC  } key.
• You can not use scientific functions in BASE mode calculation nor can you use the EXP  } key.
• Using an invalid digit for the current number base will give you a [ Syntax Error ] . Thus for example, in octal mode you can only use the digits 0-7. To enter the Hexadecimal digits A-F you need to use the keys: (-)  }, ° ’ ”  }, hyp  }, sin  }, cos  }, tan  }
• You can not enter fractions with a decimal point nor can you enter them with with the a b/c  } key
• Negative values are calculated using a two's complement notation.
• You can use the LOGIC  } key to perform AND, OR, XNOR, XOR, NOT and NEG operations and to override the default input base.
• Allowable ranges for values in each base are:
BaseNegativePositive
LowestHighestLowestHighest
Binary1000000000111111111100111111111
Octal4000000000777777777703777777777
Decimal-2147483648-102147483647

2nd or 3rd degree Polynomial Equations

Polynomial equations have an equal sign (duh) and one variable which we will call x. When you simplify the equation and eliminate all parentheses, the highest power of x is the degree of the equation. This calculator will help you find the solutions of polynomial equations and with that to factor and reduce polynomials.

Solving Polynomial Equations In a math course "solving an equation" means finding values of the unknown variable that will cause the equation to be true or correct. First degree equations will have one solution, second degree equations can have two solutions, third degree equations can have three solutions and so on. In intermediate algebra you only need to be able to solve second degree equations with one unknown, but it doesn't hurt to be prepared for future courses. To use your calculator to solve a polynomial equation you first need to rearrange your equations and set them equal to zero so they look like this:

1. 2nd degree (quadratic equation): ax² + bx + c = 0

2. 3rd degree (cubic equation): ax³ + bx² + cx + d = 0

Then you need to use the  MODE  key to go into Polynomial mode and specify the degree of your polynomial, which has to be either 2 or 3. After you have pressed the 2 or the 3 key, you will alternate between entering your data and reading your answers.

• Data entry mode.
The calculator will ask you to enter the values of the coefficients. Use the  and  cursors to enter and view the coefficients. The First line of the screen will display the letters starting with a? To enter values just key the value and press the =  } key.
• Result mode.
After you enter the last coefficient the calculator will display the first solution to the equation. To see the next solution continue to press the =  } key. You can also use the cursor controls to look at the answers. They will be displayed on the second line of the screen as x1= x2= etc. After you have displayed the last solution if you press =  } key again, the calculator will automatically go back into data entry and allow you to review or change your problem.
• If the solution is not real you will see the indicator "R ⇔ I" in the upper right corner of the display. You will need to use the Re⇔Im  } key to toggle the display between the real and the imaginary part of the solution.
• At any point in either mode you can press the AC  } key to return to data entry for coefficient a. I have not found any way of getting into Result mode other than to press the =  } key for the last coefficient.

Example: Let's say you need to find the solution to the following 2nd order polynomial equation:

5x² + 2x = 3

First use algebra to simplify the equations, combine like terms, move everything to the left of the equal sign with the powers of the unknown in descending order.

5x² + 2x -3 = 0

Then go into Equation Mode  } and select 2  } for a 2nd degree equation.
The calculator will display prompts for each of the three coefficients:
[ a? ] 5  }   =  }
[ b? ] 2  }   =  }
[ c? ] (-)3  }   =  }
After you enter all three coefficients the calculator will display the solutions:
X1 = [ -1 ]
=  } X2 = [ 0.6 ].

Factoring Polynomials Actually this is kind of backwards from the way your book works. Your book first shows you how to factor a polynomial and then uses the factors to find the solutions. Since your calculator gives you the solutions to the equation, you need to work backwards to get the factors. The factors of a second degree polynomial are the products of the ( X - (the roots)) multiplied by the coefficient of the term with the highest power of X. For a second degree polynomial this can be written as:

ax² + bx + c = (a) (X - X1)(X - X2)

Example To find the factors of: 5x² + 2x -3 we first solve the associated polynomial equation and find that the solutions are -1 and 0.6. Using this information the factors are:

5x² + 2x -3 = (5)(X - (-1)) (X - (0.6))
simplifying parentheses and using the distributive law to multiply (5) times (X - 0.6) we get:
5x² + 2x -3 = (X + 1) (5X - 3)

(X + 1) (5X - 3) = 5 X² - 3 X + 5 X - 3 = 5 X² + 2 X - 3

Synthetic division The book also shows you how to use synthetic division to eliminate a root and thereby reduce the degree of the polynomial.

Suppose you are given the equation:

X4+x³-7x²-x+6=0

and you are told that one of the solutions is x=2.

If you divide the polynomial (X4+x³-7x²-x+6=0) by (X - (2)), you will get a third degree polynomial with one fewer solutions.

Here's how you can program your calculator to do the synthetic division and give you the reduced polynomial.
The coefficients of the original polynomial are ( 1, 1, -7, -1, 6 ) and the value of x is ( 2 ).
First you Master Clear All. SHIFT  } CLR  } 3  } =  }
Then you enter the program which adds the next coefficient ( A ) to the result from the previous column ( Ans ) times the root ( 2 ). A+ANS×2  }
To run the program you need to press the Calc Key and keep pressing the Equal key to enter each coefficient and get each answer.
CALC  }   [ A? ] 1  } =  }  [ 1 ] The first answer is 1 x³
CALC  }   [ A? ] 1  } =  }  [ 3 ] the second answer is 3 x²
CALC  }   [ A? ] -7  } =  }  [ -1 ] the third answer is -1 x
CALC  }   [ A? ] -1  } =  }  [ -3 ] the fourth answer is -3
CALC  }   [ A? ] 6  } =  }  [ 0 ] the last answer is the remainder which needs to be zero.

So your reduced polynomial is x³ + 3x² -x -3

You can check this by multiplying ( x³ + 3x² -x -3 ) by ( x - (2) ) and verifying that you arrive at the original polynomial as your result.

Simultaneous Equations in two or three unknowns

First rearrange your equations so that all of the unknowns are on the left, and the constants are on the right. Then use the Mode  } key to go into equation mode and select the number of unknowns. The calculator will alternate between asking you to enter your data and giving you answers.

• The equations should be in this form:

1. two unknowns
a1 x + b1 y = c1
a2 x + b2 y = c2
2. or three unknowns
a1 x + b1 y + c1 z = d1
a2 x + b2 y + c2 z = d2
a3 x + b3 y + c3 z = d3

• Data entry mode.
After you have pressed the 2 or the 3 key to select the number of unknowns, the calculator will ask you to enter the values of the coefficients. Use the  and  cursors to enter and view the coefficients. The first line of the screen will display the coefficients starting with a1 To enter values just key the value and press the =  } key.
• Result mode.
When you enter the last coefficient the calculator will display the value of the first variable. To see the other variables continue to press the =  } key. You can also use the cursor controls to look at the answers. They will be displayed on the second line of the screen as x1= x2= etc. After you have displayed the last variable if you press =  } key again, the calculator will automatically go back into data entry and allow you to review or change your problem.
• If the equations represent parallel lines or planes the calculator will give you an error message.
• At any point in either mode you can press the AC  } key to return to data entry for coefficient a1. I have not found any way of getting into Result mode other than to press the =  } key for the last coefficient.

Example: Let's say you need to find the solution to the following two equations:

2 ( x - 1 ) = 3y + 5
4 ( y + 3 ) = 2x + 4

First use algebra to simplify the equations, combine like terms, move the unknowns to the left of the equal sign in the correct order and move the constants to the right, like this:

2x - 3y = 7
-2x + 4y = -8

Then go into Equation Mode  } and select 2  } Unknowns.
The calculator will display prompts for each of the six coefficients, a1?, b1?, c1?, a2?, b2?, and c2? Enter the equations using the following keys: 2=   (-) 3=   7=   (-) 2=   4=   (-) 8=    }. Make sure you use the =  } to enter each value. After you enter all six coefficients the calculator will display the solution: X = [ 2 ] and Y = [ -1 ].

Engineering Mode and Engineering Units

To enter engineering units you need to press the SHIFT  }   key with the correct unit. Be sure you do not confuse the key for memory location M  } with engineering unit M  } for Mega.

To display results using engineering units you need to switch to   EngON  .

The Engineering Units and their names are:
 Name Unit symbol key Kilo Mega Giga Tera Milli Micro Nano Pico Femto 10³ 106 109 1012 10-3 10-6 10-9 10-12 10-15 k M G T m μ n p f {  k  } {  M  } {  G  } {  T  } {  m  } {  μ  } {  n  } {  p  } {  f  }

Example: To add 512 GigaBytes to your existing 1 Terabyte of storage:

512  } SHIFT  } G  } +  } 1  } SHIFT  } T  } =  }   [ 1.512 ×1012 ]

To change the display to engineering format press:
MODE  } MODE  } MODE  } MODE  } MODE  } MODE  } 1  } 1  }   [ 1.512 T ]

To convert to Gigabytes press:
ENG  }   [ 1,512. G ]

To convert to Megabytes press:
ENG  }   [ 1,512,000. M ]