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Kinematics | Forces | Energy | Momentum | Rotational Motion | Harmonic Motion and Waves |
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Kinetic Theory of Gases | Electricity and Magnetism | Electric Circuits | Light and Optics |
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Special Mention

This page is mainly arranged in the typical curriculum order. It is intended to include links to Java and Shockwave simulations from around the world of primarily undergraduate content. When possible, to avoid Web traffic, a mirror server was used. The page is an extensive reworking and enlargement of the one maintained by Taha Mzoughi.

Evelyn Patterson's USAFA Physlets
Here is an excellent summary of the USAFA applet toolkit. The original site of applets at the United States Air Force Academy is no longer available. Patterson is a JiTT principal architect. A detailed textual reference on JiTT is "Just-in-Time-Teaching: Blending Active Learning with Web Technology" by G. M. Novak, E. T. Patterson, A. D. Gavin, and W. Christian, (Prentice-Hall, 1999).


Kinematics

Graphing Motion
Practice your skill at interpreting graphs. Ten different velocity-time graphs are presented; your goal is to enter motion parameters, which will result in a motion, which matches the graph.
Tom Henderson

Hit the Target
Practice your skill at solving horizontally launched projectile problems by seeing if you can hit a target. Three types of problems are presented with randomly generated numbers.
Tom Henderson

Interesting Properties of Projectile Motion (mirrored in this site)
Simultaneously examine trajectories of many projectiles with the same initial speed in Case 1. In Case 2 study the properties of the motion of a single projectile for various initial conditions.
Fu-Kwun Hwang

One-D Motion (mirrored in this site)
This java applet illustrates relations between displacement, velocity and acceleration for one-dimensional motion.
Fu-Kwun Hwang

Projectile Motion (mirrored in this site)
Two cannons at different heights aim at each other. What will happen if both cannons fire at the same time?
To find out just press the start button. Vary the cannon positions and each initial cannonball velocity.
Fu-Kwun Hwang

Shoot the Monkey
This activity is a classic example of firing directly towards a falling target. Due to the laws of physics it is rather hard to miss! Fling a few balloons at a strange looking monkey to see for yourself.
Raman Pfaff

Racing Balls (mirrored in this site)
When the two balls are launched with the same initial velocity from the ends of two tracks, one straight and one curved, which gets to the other end first?
Fu-Kwun Hwang

Reaction Time (mirrored in this site)
Measure your reaction time. Estimate how fast you can drive on the highway. Vary the car initial velocity and the friction coefficient.
Fu-Kwun Hwang

Relative Motion (mirrored in this site)
This java applet let you view objects from different frame of reference. Imaging there is a river in the center of the screen and a boat that is also moving with respect to the river. There is a person who walks close to one side of the river and can swim across the river. You can easily change frame of reference by moving your mouse to different regions to see the different perspectives. A 2-D example is also provided.
Fu-Kwun Hwang

Traffic Light System (mirrored in this site)
Try being the engineer of the traffic light system for a one-way street that consists of several lanes along which rush hour traffic flows.
Fu-Kwun Hwang

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Forces

Billiard Ball Simulation(mirrored in this site)
For arbitrary cushion rail height, the ball will not roll but rather will slide away after the rail impact. Investigate the results for different rail heights, initial velocities of the ball, and coefficients of kinetic friction between the table's surface and the ball. The total mechanical energy, the energy associated with the center-of-mass motion, and the energy associated with the rigid-body rotation are also shown below the table in real time, in arbitrary units.
Thomas Wilson

Blocks and Center of Gravity (mirrored in this site)
This is a homework problem shown in many Fundamental Physics textbooks. Try to stack four uniform blocks on top of a table so that they extend as far right as possible and remain stable.
Fu-Kwun Hwang

Center of Mass
Drag small blocks onto a tabletop and instantly see where the center of mass is located. The blocks may be stacked.
Raman Pfaff

Force on A Wing
A very simple illustration of the force on an airplane wing.
Raman Pfaff

Free Body Diagrams
Practice your skill at constructing free-body diagrams for a given physical situation. Twelve different descriptions of a physical situation are presented; your goal is to determine the type and relative magnitude of the forces acting upon the described object.
Tom Henderson

Freefall Lab - Terminal Velocity
Did you ever think of all the physics involved when you drop a ball (or an expensive plate)?
Raman Pfaff

Frictional Force (mirrored in this site)
A mass m1 rests on top of another mass m2 that is connected to a hanging mass m3 by a light rope that passes over a frictionless pulley. Use this java applet to study the force diagram and the motion of the system when frictional forces are present.
Fu-Kwun Hwang

Golf Range!
You study the projectile range equation in a golf-like setting. It is a bit more of a challenge when you use the air-friction option.
Raman Pfaff

In Which Direction Will it Roll? (mirrored in this site)
If a string wound around a spool is pulled horizontally, in which direction will the spool roll? Try it.
Fu-Kwun Hwang

Inclined Plane
This lets you alter the initial velocity, mass, and angle of a frictionless inclined plane.
Raman Pfaff

Newton's Second Law Experiment (mirrored in this site)
Examine motion on a frictionless and on a rough pathway for an object accelerated by a hanging weight.
Walter Fendt

Pulley
Explore the mechanical advantage of a pulley. There are three sets of pulleys presented to study: a) one fixed, b) one movable hanging from one fixed, and c) two movable hanging from two fixed.
Fu-Kwun Hwang

Pulleys
Study a block and tackle pulley system in which a one, two, or three fixed pulley(s) set supports a similar movable set. You can raise or lower the load with the mouse. If you click on the mouse button, a spring balance will appear showing the tension in the string. You can change the weight of the load and the number of pulleys by using the appropriate boxes. Inputs higher than the spring scale limit (10 N) are automatically changed.
Walter Fendt

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Energy

2D Collision (mirrored in this site)
Examine the collisions of two circular objects under various conditions.
Fu-Kwun Hwang

2D Collisions
Examine 2D elastic/inelastic collisions on a flat (or tilted) table, and even use magnetic pucks.
Raman Pfaff

Billiard Ball Simulation (mirrored in this site)
For arbitrary cushion rail height, the ball will not roll but rather will slide away after the rail impact. Investigate the results for different rail heights, initial velocities of the ball, and coefficients of kinetic friction between the table's surface and the ball. The total mechanical energy, the energy associated with the center-of-mass motion, and the energy associated with the rigid-body rotation are also shown below the table in real time, in arbitrary units.
Thomas Wilson

Bouncing Balls (mirrored in this site)
Watch the parabolic hops of a ball sent horizontally off a table. See how they change as the coefficient of restitution is varied.
Fu-Kwun Hwang

In Which Direction Will it Roll? (mirrored in this site)
If a string wound around a spool is pulled horizontally, in which direction will the spool roll? Try it.
Fu-Kwun Hwang

Inclined Plane
This lets you alter the initial velocity, mass, and angle of a frictionless inclined plane.
Raman Pfaff

Newton's Second Law Experiment (mirrored in this site)
Examine motion on a frictionless and on a rough pathway for an object accelerated by a hanging weight.
Walter Fendt

Potential Energy
Simulate dropping a ball to see how high it will bounce under various conditions.
Greg Bothun

Racing Balls (mirrored in this site)
When the two balls are launched with the same initial velocity from the ends of two tracks, one straight and one curved, which gets to the other end first?
Fu-Kwun Hwang

The Bouncing Ball (mirrored in this site)
This applet shows a ball bouncing from the floor and walls of a 2-D box. The mass moves under the force of gravity, and all collisions are elastic. The angle at which the mass hits the surface is equal to the angle at which it leaves the surface. The floor is V-shaped and its vertex angle can be varied.
Sergey Kiselev and Tanya Yanovsky-Kiselev

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Momentum

2D Collision (mirrored in this site)
Examine the collisions of two circular objects under various conditions.
Fu-Kwun Hwang

2D Collisions
Examine 2D elastic/inelastic collisions on a flat (or tilted) table, and even use magnetic pucks.
Raman Pfaff

Air Track
The basic air track with two blocks. You can change the coefficient of restitution, initial masses, and velocities.
Raman Pfaff

Conservation of Momentum in Different Inertial Frames (1D) (mirrored in this site)
Two circular objects are confined to move in one direction between two gray blocks. Vary the reference frame (lab, center of mass, each object's rest frame), initial velocities, masses, and coefficient of restitution. Watch them bounce!
Fu-Kwun Hwang

Momentum
A boxcar of fixed mass but variable initial momentum collides totally inelastically with another car of variable mass. The final speed and motion is displayed.
Sean Russell, Amy Hulse, and Greg Bothun

Newton's Cradle (mirrored in this site)
In a 5-ball device vary the number (1 to 4) of balls initially pulled back. Assume perfectly elastic collisions. Ho hum! The real one is more fun because it goes click-click-click-...
Walter Fendt

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Rotational Motion

Angular momentum and Area (mirrored in this site)
Conservation of angular momentum and area are examined for a black dot that moves freely from left to right. A different color shows the area sweep out with respect to some fixed points. Do all the areas have the same size? Click within each area and see what will happen.
Fu-Kwun Hwang

Blocks and center of gravity (mirrored in this site)
This is a homework problem shown in many Fundamental Physics textbooks. Try to stack four uniform blocks on top of a table so that they extend as far right as possible and remain stable.
Fu-Kwun Hwang

Circular Motion and Centripetal Force (mirrored in this site)
A ball is attached to a massless cord that passes through a small hole in a frictionless horizontal table. The ball is initially orbiting in a circle of radius r with velocity v. A second ball is tied to the other end of the cord. In equilibrium, the gravitational force on the second ball Fg = Mg, provides the centripetal force Fc needed for uniform circular motion. You can vary the initial angular momentum, the circle radius r, and the coordinate system rotation.
Fu-Kwun Hwang

Free Rolling and Circular Motion (mirrored in this site)
Fu-Kwun Hwang

In Which Direction Will it Roll? (mirrored in this site)
If a string wound around a spool is pulled horizontally, in which direction will the spool roll? Try it.
Fu-Kwun Hwang

Levers and Torques
This applet shows a symmetrical lever with some mass pieces each of which has a weight of 1.0 N. The lever arms can be read from the colored rectangles; one rectangle corresponds to 0.10 m. The lever is in balance when the applet is started. You can attach a new mass piece or put it to another place with pressed mouse button. In a similar way you can remove a mass piece by clicking on it.
Walter Fendt

Moment of Inertia
A simulation where you can learn about rotational inertia.
Raman Pfaff

Motion of a Ping-Pong (mirrored in this site)
Have you ever use your finger to press down one side of the ping-pong ball? If you press hard enough, you will find ping-pong ball running away from you. However, a few seconds later, the ping-pong starts to rolling back toward you. Why? Explore the answer here using a hollow/solid ball and variable coefficient of friction and initial angular velocity. Examine the v-t and wr-t graphs.
Fu-Kwun Hwang

See-Saw Torque
Try putting several masses on a see-saw in an effort to balance the system.
Raman Pfaff

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Harmonic Motion and Waves

Driven Harmonic Motion (1 mass)
Applying a small driving force to a mass between two springs helps you understand natural and resonant frequencies.
Raman Pfaff

Driven Harmonic Motion (2 masses)
This is similar to the above 1 mass example. But it has an additional mass and spring so you can observe different modes of resonance.
Raman Pfaff

Harmonic Motion (2-D)
In this module a single mass is vibrating in 2 dimensions.
Raman Pfaff

Lissajous Figures
Can you really make a figure 8 with electrical signals? Find out here.
Raman Pfaff

Oscillation and Wave (mirrored in this site)
For a mass hanging from a spring with friction and a harmonic driving force the net force acting on the mass is F = m g - k x - b v + fo sin( cwt ). Vary the parameters and the initial position; then watch what happens in the motion and its graphs.
Fu-Kwun Hwang

Pendulum
This Java applet demonstrates the variation of elongation, velocity, tangential acceleration, force and energy during the oscillation of a pendulum (assumed with no friction).
Walter Fendt

Pendulum (mirrored in this site)
Vary the parameters of mass, length, g, and the initial position; then watch what happens in the motion and its graphs of potential and kinetic energy.
Fu-Kwun Hwang

Simple Harmonic Motion
Examine a pendulum and a mass on a spring next to each other with g different than on Earth.
Raman Pfaff

Simple Harmonic Motion and Uniform Circular Motion (mirrored in this site)
If we were to look at a side view of the uniform circular motion on a thumbtack stuck on a rotating table, we would see the thumbtack oscillate in simple harmonic motion. Press Start to begin the animation. The black dot will move in uniform circular motion. Watch and find out the relation between uniform circular motion and simple harmonic motion.
Fu-Kwun Hwang

Spring Force and SHM (mirrored in this site)
A horizontal spring is connected to a hanging mass m by a light rope that passes over a frictionless pulley. Use this java applet to study Hooke's Law and the simple harmonic motion of the system when no frictional forces are present.
Fu-Kwun Hwang

Spring Mass System
This Java applet demonstrates the variation of elongation, velocity, acceleration, force and energy during the oscillation of a spring pendulum (assumed with no friction).
Walter Fendt

The Pendulum (mirrored in this site)
This applet shows a pendulum suspended on a 'rigid string'. One can drag the pendulum to its starting position. Once in motion, the pendulum can be 'caught' by clicking and holding the mass when it has reached its maximum angle. Thus, the pendulum can be brought to its new starting position. The experimental period is shown in the panel above the pendulum itself and is obtained by multiplying the time needed to make half an oscillation by two. The theoretical period T, on the other hand, is obtained by a formula which is valid only for small angles, i.e., T=2B (L/g)1/2, where L is the length of the string and g is the acceleration due to gravity. Thus, as the initial angle is larger one can notice a dramatic difference in the two periods.
Sergey Kiselev and Tanya Yanovsky-Kiselev

The Spring Pendulum (mirrored in this site)
This applet shows the two-dimensional spring pendulum: a mass suspended on a spring. The pendulum moves under the influence of gravity and the elastic force of the spring. The apparently simple motion of this system is complex enough that no equations exist that would describe its path. The motion of the system is calculated using Newton's Second Law: a = Fnet/M. The net force is the vector sum of the gravitational force Mg and the elastic force of the spring F = - k x.
Sergey Kiselev and Tanya Yanovsky-Kiselev

Superposition of Longitudinal Waves
A source somewhere beyond the left end produces a disturbance at the top of the image. The disturbance at the bottom is due to a source somewhere beyond the right end. The pattern in the middle is due to the mixing of the two. In the middle portion a layer is shown when it is at its equilibrium position. Reference layers help to identify the initial phases of the pulses.
Surendranath Reddy. B.

Longitudinal Wave
Shown are vibrating layers of air in a horizontal tube. It is slow to load.
Surendranath Reddy. B.

Ripple Tank
Portrayed are an animated circular-ripple gif and an interactive stadium wave.
Physics 2000, University of Colorado at Boulder

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Gravitation and Planetary Motion

Astro Orbit Simulator
Is it that difficult to get planets orbiting around a sun?
Raman Pfaff

Games Black Hole
Try getting ore buckets from your ore cannon to the stations that have black holes all around.
Raman Pfaff

Kepler Motion (mirrored in this site)
This java applet let you play with Kepler's laws to gain more physics insight.
Fu-Kwun Hwang

Kepler's Second Law
The applet comes with a full tutorial. Test Kepler's second law by press the Start Sweeping button; then, after a few seconds, press the Stop Sweeping button. In the panel you can read the amount of time taken to complete that fraction of the orbit as well as the area swept by the line joining the Sun and the planet. To verify Kepler's second law, press the Start Sweeping button again. The area traced by the line joining the Sun with the planet will become visible. After the amount of time given by the first box has elapsed, the tracing will stop automatically. You can compare the two areas, which have been traced in equal times. Now adjust the parameters of the orbit and press Submit to observe a different orbit.
David McNamara and Gianfranco Vidali

Projectile Orbits and Satellite orbits (mirrored in this site)
A ball thrown from a tall building sails in a modest orbit that soon intersects the earth not far from its point of launch. Explore increasing the launch speed until the ball would glides all the way around to the other side without ever striking the ground. See that at successively greater launch speeds, the ball moves in ever-larger elliptical orbits until it moves so fast initially that it sails off in an open parabolic or (if even faster) into a still flatter, hyperbolic orbit, never to come back to its starting point.
Fu-Kwun Hwang

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Fluids

A Floating Log
If a log is 2 m in radius and 10 m long, how much weight can I put on it? Find out here.
Raman Pfaff

Archimedes' Principle
A solid body hanging from a spring balance illustrates the buoyancy of a liquid. When the body is dipped into a liquid (by dragging the mouse), the measured force, which is equal to the difference of weight and buoyant force, is reduced.
Walter Fendt

Buoyant Force (mirrored in this site)
This java applet shows effect of buoyant force acting on an object that is less dense than water.
Fu-Kwun Hwang

Density Lab
Why do some things float and others don't? Learn about mass, volume, and density.
Raman Pfaff

Force on A Wing
A very simple illustration of the force on an airplane wing.
Raman Pfaff

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Unit Conversion

Google
The Google search window can be used to do calculations and unit conversions. Also, search with Google using the three words "Google", "unit" and "conversion" for much more than is listed below.
Google.com, Inc.

Conversion Factors
Here is a database of conversion factors and a calculator.
Freie Universität Berlin · Institut für Chemie und Biochemie

Martendale's Calculators
An extensive collection of calculators for the sciences, business and everyday measurements. Organized by subject area.
Jim Martindale

Unit Conversions
Select the type of quantity you need to convert from the drop down menu. Type the amount to be converted, including significant final zeroes, in the "Quantity" box, then select its unit from the "Unit" drop down menu. The calculation is made whenever you select the new unit from the drop down menu. The results are shown in a lower panel. They include the conversion factor used in the calculation, an illustration of the procedure followed in the calculation and the result. You may convert a new quantity of the same type by changing the relevant information. When the new unit is not changed, you need to press the "Calculate" button to perform the calculation. You may select a new quantity type by using the "Select Quantity" drop down menu. For temperature conversions the procedure is the same, but the utility shows only the result of the calculation.
Taha Mzoughi

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Sound

Longitudinal Waves
In this simulation see the relationships between movement of the particles of the medium and the graphs of their displacement, velocity, or acceleration versus time.
Raman Pfaff

Decibels (mirrored in this site)
This is an audio demonstration of decibels. A sound card is required to play the 250Hz tone. Ignore irrelevant text on page; scroll down and click "Start Simulation".
Andrew Silverman

Doppler Effect, 2 Sources
Similar to Sonic Doppler Effect (1 source) where you watch sound waves from a single moving source. Here two sources are present so you can see interference patterns.
Raman Pfaff

Fourier Synthesis (mirrored in this site)
Set the base frequency and use standard examples like square or saw tooth waves or change the magnitude of each Fourier function [Sin nf, Cos nf]. Having a sound card, click Play to turn on the sound effect; click Stop to turn it off. See/hear the wave and the square of the amplitude of the signal instantly as you make changes. There are links to a one-page summary of Fourier Series theory, a Zerius Synthesizer, a Fourier Synthesis page with applet by Manfred Thole, and another Fourier applet.
Fu-Kwun Hwang

Interactive Application Notes and Models
This is a link to Agilent Technologies (Div. of H.P.) Application Notes 150-1: Spectrum Analysis Amplitude & Frequency Modulation. This application note discusses the measurement of amplitude and frequency modulated signals using a spectrum analyzer. The basic theory behind AM and FM modulation including time and frequency domain representations is presented. The note is downloadable in many forms and contains more than 60 online pages, more than 60 analyzer screen-captures, zoomable illustrations, photographs, and four QuickTimeTM signal animations. It also has two interactive Java signal models allowing for exploration and experience of basic concepts underlying AM and FM modulation. Links to the interactive model pages are found directly on this abstract page. They are: Interactive Amplitude Modulation Model and Interactive Frequency Modulation Model.
Hewlett-Packard

Interference Between Two Waves (point source, mirrored in this site)
This java applet let you play with two point sources and watch the effect of interference. For an animated ripple tank type image, the wavelength and source separation are adjustable. The path lengths to the curser pointer location and the path difference are displayed in wavelengths.
Fu-Kwun Hwang

Interference of Sinusoidal Waveforms

Interference Patterns
This presents another view of interference patterns from a 'standing' wave.
Raman Pfaff

Moving Point Source: Doppler Effect and Shock Wave (mirrored in this site)
The wave fronts of a moving point source are depicted. The wave speed, wavelength and the speed of the point source can be adjusted.
Fu-Kwun Hwang

Reverberation Time Demonstration
Not Java or Shockwave but if you want to hear what various lengths of reverberation time sound like with the same sound source, just click on the samples for times of up to 3s. These are available in both "hi-fi" stereo 16 bit ".wav" files, for use with the standard 16 bit PC soundcard media players, and stereo 8 bit ".au" files for faster download, as well as in Real Audio files. Both Netscape and Microsoft Internet Explorer will play .au files. The Real Audio files require the Real Audio player. There is a link to a brief technical description of the parameters of these reverb time simulations.
McSquared Systems Design Group

Sonic Doppler Effect (1 source)
Watch sound waves from a moving source. Learn why a train’s whistle sounds differently as it passes by you.
Raman Pfaff

Sound Simulation
This Java demo allows you to design your own object and render the sounds this makes under various interactions like hitting, plucking, and scraping. Eventually an object builder like this will be integrated into a simulation or animation environment, allowing you to assign sonic properties to an object. The sonic attributes will be designed and precomputed (whatever parameters the synthesis engine requires) in an object builder like this and then added to your animation/simulation environment. There is also a link to a virtual bell tower page.
Kees van den Doel

Soundscapes (mirrored in this site)
This fully interactive page allows you to draw your own 64x 64x16 grey-tone image and immediately hear the corresponding 64-voice polyphonic soundscape being synthesized on the fly! See and hear how The vOICe mapping works for your input. The 64-channel sound synthesis</font> here maps the image into an exponentially distributed [500 Hz, 4 kHz] frequency interval for a 1.05 second soundscape. Furthermore, you can view sound waves, sonify existing images, train for audiovisual synesthesia, perform on-line composing, make soundscape animations and create spectrograms. It is the very first Java-based auditory display published on the World Wide Web.
Peter Meijer

Spectrum Analysis Java
A sound and hearing demonstration of the complex relationship between wave form, amplitude spectrum, and phase spectrum. It runs poorly on MacIntosh platforms.
Gregory Sandell

Speed of Sound Calculator (mirrored in this site)
A simple Java program to calculate the velocity of sound for a temperature range of 0 to 30 degrees C, and relative humidity 0 to 100 % RH, at standard atmospheric pressure and typical CO2 concentration. The algorithm is based on the approximate formula published in JASA [1993] by Owen Cramer, "The variation of the specific heat ratio and the speed of sound in air with temperature, pressure, humidity, and CO2 concentration." Ignore irrelevant text on page; scroll down and click "Start Simulation".
Andrew Silverman

The Location of Supersonic Airplane (mirrored in this site)
Consider an airplane, which is flying from A toward B. A listener is located at C to one side. The sound generated at A travels toward C along the path AC. The listener hears the sound as the airplane flies toward point B. ( AB > AC ). DC is the path of the sound generated at D to the listener. The airplane speed is V and the sound speed is Vs. If AC/Vs > AD/V + DC/Vs, (Isn't it unlikely that the shorter path will take a longer time?), then the sound generated at point D will arrive earlier than sound generated at point A! Funny! You hear something, which happened later and then hear something, which happened earlier! What will you hear if a supersonic airplane flying over you? Do you know where the airplane is when you hear it? The applet demonstrates several cases.
Fu-Kwun Hwang

The String Plucker
"One holds the mouse down anywhere in the upper half of the framed applet field, moves the mouse around with button down to set the initial "plucked position", and releases the mouse to let the vibrating string evolve in time. Watch the interesting distribution of harmonics in the lower bar graph as the plucked point is moved along the string. This time animation is constructed from the exact Fourier series for an ideal plucked string, vibrating in a plane, with uniform tension and initial triangular profile as set by the user. Choosing the number of Fourier components (harmonics) sets the accuracy of this simulation."
M. Gallant

Sound Beats
When two sounds of similar frequency are heard together, you'll hear pulses called beats due to the wave nature of sound. Try to determine several mystery frequencies.
Raman Pfaff

Phased Array
This simulates a phased array in which you can change the frequency between the four wave sources. Ultrasound and radar are two real world applications of this technique.
Raman Pfaff

Ultrasound: How Does it Work?
This simulation explores ultrasound imaging as a technique used to see inside an object (such as the human body). Also, there is a link to animated gif image-slices of a throat and another link to download a large (7MB) 3D-fly-though movie of a throat.
Raman Pfaff

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Thermodynamics

Carnot Cycle
An animated heat engine is shown at the left. The corresponding steps of the cycle are simultaneously drawn on a p-V diagram at the right. There are only init, start, and stop buttons with no other interaction.
Xing M. (Sherman) Wang

Carnot Cycle (Heat Engine) (mirrored in this site)
This java applet shows the physics processes of a Carnot heat engine on a p-V diagram. You set the animation speed, the Cp/Cv ratio, the initial p and V values, p-maximum, and V-maximum. An animated heat engine is shown at the bottom. A point in the p-V diagram simultaneously follows the corresponding steps of the cycle. Numerical values of p, V, and T are provided instantly for the current curser position. Also, the efficiency is displayed.
Fu-Kwun Hwang

Maxwellian Velocity Distribution
This applet is designed to demonstrate the properties of the ideal gas law. Molecules are shown moving in a balloon. The temperature can be adjusted by dragging a thermometer column. Gauge readings are provided for the pressure and average molecule speed. The particle distribution, N vs. velocity, is plotted instantly for each chosen temperature. Warning! Don't set the temperature too high!
Sean Russell, Amy McGrew, and Greg Bothun

Min/Max Thermometer
In an effort to record daily temperatures, a min/max thermometer is commonly used. This module will let you see if you can determine the current, minimum, and maximum daily temperature.
Raman Pfaff

Otto Cycle
An animated heat engine is shown at the left. The corresponding steps of the cycle are simultaneously drawn on a p-V diagram at the right. There are only init, start, and stop buttons with no other interaction.
Xing M. (Sherman) Wang

Pressure Chamber
Here is a virtual laboratory activity with detailed instructions provided for three experiments: Constant V, Constant T, and Ideal Gas Law. The embedded applet shows a chamber with a variable volume. The temperature can be adjusted by dragging a thermometer column. Gauge readings are provided for the pressure and volume. Automatically scaled and drawn diagrams of p vs. V are given. A button for an adiabatic experiment is provided but without instructions for its use. Three different molecular weight gases may be selected for the Ideal Gas Law experiment. Warning! Don't let the pressure get too high!
Sean Russell, Amy Hulse, and Greg Bothun 

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Kinetic Theory of Gases

Kinetic Theory I
This Java applet simulates a 2 dimensional gas of hard spheres. It illustrates several important concepts in statistical mechanics/kinetic theory, such as: mean free path and average time between collisions, the approach to thermal equilibrium and the Maxwell-Boltzmann speed distribution, and the question of macroscopic irreversibility vs. microscopic reversibility.
Julio Gea-Banacloche

Molecular Dynamics Simulation (mirrored in this site)
Consider a chain of particles of mass m where the nearest-neighbors are connected by the anharmonic springs. Such lattice supports intrinsic local modes (ILMs) with their frequencies above the phonon band characterized by the maximal harmonic plane waves frequency. The applet allows you to watch vibrating ILMs in the lattice of 15 particles with periodic boundaries. The evolution of the chain is calculated by the molecular-dynamics technique.
You can launch an Odd-Parity ILM, an Even-Parity ILM, or a Moving ILM.
Sergey Kiselev and Tanya Yanovsky-Kiselev

Molecular Model for an Ideal Gas (mirrored in this site)
The Java applet shows a microscopic model based on the usual simple kinetic theory assumptions for an ideal gas. The pressure that a gas exerts on the walls of its container is a consequence of the collisions of the gas molecules with the walls. You can change the following parameters: N(total number of molecules), P (pressure of the system), v (velocity of the molecules), and (width of the container).
Fu-Kwun Hwang

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Electricity and Magnetism

Charged Particle Motion in E/M Field (mirrored in this site)
This java applet depicts the 3-D motion of a charged particle in a uniform and constant electric/ magnetic field.
Fu-Kwun Hwang

Force Field
Add/delete charged bodies (terminals), and "test charges" and drag things around to see how the forces change.
Physics 2000, University of Colorado at Boulder

Charged Particles Moving in a Magnetic Field (mirrored in this site)
In this noninteractive demonstration various particles enter a region of the magnetic field with their velocities being perpendicular to the magnetic field lines. Watch the magnetic force deflect the particles in a circular path.
Sergey Kiselev and Tanya Yanovsky-Kiselev

Coulomb Forces
Like charges repel. See it for yourself with this simulation.
Raman Pfaff

Cyclotron (mirrored in this site)
This java applet lets you play with a cyclotron.
Fu-Kwun Hwang

E & M Intro to Plasma
Learn a bit about plasma physics.
Raman Pfaff

Electric Fields
Place point electric charges and see the electric field they create by clicking in the box.
Martin Busque, Michel Dion, Daniel Michaud, and Michael Sheaff

Generator
The Java applet simulates a generator, which is reduced to the most important parts for clarity. Instead of an armature with many windings and iron nucleus there is only a single rectangular conductor loop; the axis the loop rotates on is omitted.
Walter Fendt

Lorentz Force
The Java applet illustrates the Lorentz force under varied conditions. The force is exerted on a current-carrying conductor that is free to swing in the magnetic field of a horseshoe magnet.
Walter Fendt

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Electrical Circuits

A Four-Resistor Circuit (mirrored in this site)
Increase/decrease the magnitude of the EMF and the resistors by clicking on the upper/lower part of the object. The values of the resistors range from 1 to 10 ohms. And the value of the EMF ranges from -10 to +10 Volts. Erase or replace circuit segments or the resistors by selecting the "Eraser" or the wire from the menu. You can place up to four resistors. Resistors can only be placed vertically.
Sergey Kiselev and Tanya Yanovsky-Kiselev

A Two-Resistor Circuit (mirrored in this site)
Increase/decrease the magnitude of the EMF and the resistors by clicking on the upper/lower part of the object. The values of the resistors range from 1 to 10 ohms. And the value of the EMF ranges from -10 to +10 Volts. Erase or replace (some) circuit segments or the resistors by selecting the "Eraser" or the wire from the menu.
Sergey Kiselev and Tanya Yanovsky-Kiselev

Basic Function of an Oscilloscope (mirrored in this site)
This java applet simulates the basic functions of an oscilloscope.
Fu-Kwun Hwang

Circuits
Examine the properties of a series RLC circuit. Ignore irrelevant text on page; scroll down and click "Start Simulation".
Andrea Mameli, Gavino Paddeu, Paolo Anedda, Marco Pescosolido, Enrico Stara

Direct Current Electric Motor (mirrored in this site)
This Java applet shows a direct current electrical motor which is reduced to the most important parts for clarity. Instead of an armature with many windings and iron nucleus there is only a single rectangular conductor loop; the axis the loop rotates on is omitted. Ignore irrelevant text on page; scroll down and click "Start Simulation".
Walter Fendt

Formation of a PN Junction Diode and its Band Diagram
The simulation of a p-type semiconductor and an n-type semiconductor. You can change the semiconductor material and doping levels. Equilibrium band diagrams appear below the semiconductor. The green horizontal line is the Fermi level. Initiate the pn junction formation by clicking the 'FormJunction' button or using mouse drag and watch the physical system approach a new (electro-thermal) equilibrium.
Chu Ryang Wie

Induced Current (mirrored in this site)
This applet illustrates that changing the area of a coil in a constant magnetic field can induce a current.
Sergey Kiselev and Tanya Yanovsky-Kiselev

Kirchhoff's Rules (Circuit 1) (mirrored in this site)
Kirchhoff's Rules (Circuit 2) (mirrored in this site)
Kirchhoff's Rules (Circuit 3) (mirrored in this site)
Kirchhoff's Rules (Circuit 4) (mirrored in this site)
Kirchhoff's Rules (Circuit 5) (mirrored in this site)
Increase/decrease the magnitude of the EMFs and the resistors by clicking on the upper/lower part of the object. The values of the resistors range from 1 to 10 ohms. And the values of the EMFs range from -10 to +10 Volts. The ammeters show the currents in the wires, the voltmeters show the voltages across the resistors.
Sergey Kiselev and Tanya Yanovsky-Kiselev

Ohm's Law (mirrored in this site)
Voltage and current are directly proportional in a metallic conductor of constant temperature.
Walter Fendt

RC Circuits (mirrored in this site)
This java applet examines the transient behavior that occurs when the capacitor is being charged and discharged.
Fu-Kwun Hwang

RLC Circuit (mirrored in this site)
This java applet will show you physics properties of an R-L-C circuit driven by a harmonic voltage source.
Fu-Kwun Hwang

Simple AC Circuits
Examine a simple circuit consisting of an alternating voltage source and, depending on the selected radio button, a resistor (without inductivity), a capacitor or an ideal coil (without resistance). There are meters for the voltage U and the current I.
Walter Fendt

Wheatstone Bridge (mirrored in this site)
Measure an unknown resistance, Rx, by using a simulated Wheatstone bridge and adjusting a known resistance so that the measured current is zero. To make it more fun, you can measure voltage and current at any place in the circuit. Just drag the plus and minus connectors of the multimeter to any place on the wire. The variable resistor at R2 can be changed either by dragging the green slider or by typing a number in a text field. Ignore irrelevant text on page; scroll down and click "Start Simulation".
Dorothea Wiarda

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Light and Optics

Addition of Colors(mirrored in this site)
Drag and drop colored squares to see both color addition and subtraction. The resulting color is shown where the squares overlap.
Phillip Dukes

Bragg's Law and Diffraction
The applet shows two rays incident on two atomic layers of a crystal. The layers look like rows because the layers are projected onto two dimensions and your view is parallel to the layers. The applet begins with the scattered rays in phase and interfering constructively. Bragg's Law is satisfied and diffraction is occurring. The meter indicates how well the phases of the two rays match. The small light on the meter is green when Bragg's equation is satisfied and red when it is not satisfied. The meter can be observed while the three variables in Bragg's Law are changed.
Paul J. Scheilds

Double Slit Interference (mirrored in this site)
The applet provides an animated line drawing of plane waves passing through two slits. You can vary the slit spacing, wavelength, and observation point. The path difference is automatically computed for the observation point.
Fu-Kwun Hwang

Fermat's Principle
Is the shortest path from one point to another always the quickest? Find out for yourself with this fun simulation.
Raman Pfaff

Find The Fastest Path (mirrored in this site)
Try to find the point along a plane boundary that separates two media of different travel speeds so that the total travel time along the two linear segments up to and away from the point is minimized.
Fu-Kwun Hwang

Geometrical Optics (mirrored in this site)
For an incident ray vary the angle of incidence and/or the index of refraction and observe how the reflected and refracted rays change. Ignore irrelevant text on page; scroll down and click "Start Simulation".
Andrea Mameli

Huygens' Principle (mirrored in this site)
This is a very nice applet. A plane wavefront runs diagonally against the boundary of two media. The wave has a different velocity in each medium. Upon arrival of the wavefront points along the boundary behave according to Huygens' principle. Each point can be regarded as a spherical source of light. In medium 2 these elementary waves move slower since the index of refraction is larger. A superposition of all the elementary waves results in a new plane wave. Note that the direction of propagation of the plane wave changes when moving from medium 1 to 2. The direction of propagation of the wave is now drawn. It is the line perpendicular to the wavefront. Finally the full complexity is seen when a series of successive incoming wavefronts are drawn with each giving rise to superimposed overlapping constructions. The refraction indices and the angle of incidence can be varied.
Walter Fendt

Image Formation by a Converging Lens (mirrored in this site)
The applet shows: two arrows, a converging lens, and rays of light being emitted by the red arrow. The red arrow is the movable object, while the green arrow is the image that results after the rays have passed through the lens. The applet also displays two foci shown as blue dots. You can move the object around by either clicking and dragging or just clicking in the location of your choice. While the image stays real it appears on the right of the lens as a green arrow. When the image becomes virtual, it appears on the left of the lens as a gray arrow. When the object is placed exactly at the focal point, the image appears at infinity. The principle rays are shown.
Sergey Kiselev and Tanya Yanovsky-Kiselev

Image Formation by a Diverging Lens (mirrored in this site)
The applet shows: two arrows, a diverging lens, and rays of light being emitted by the red arrow. The red arrow is the moveable object, while the gray arrow is the virtual image that results after the rays have passed through the lens. The applet also displays two focuses shown as blue dots. You can move the object around by either clicking and dragging or just clicking in the location of your choice. A diverging lens always forms an upright virtual image. The image appears on the left of the lens as a gray arrow. The principle rays are shown.
Sergey Kiselev and Tanya Yanovsky-Kiselev

Image Formation by a Diverging Mirror (mirrored in this site)
The applet shows the basics of the Convex Mirror. Yellow lines represent the three principle rays of light used to form the image. The red arrow is the movable object and the gray arrow is the resulting virtual image. Since a diverging mirror always forms an upright virtual image, the image only appears on the right of the mirror.
Sergey Kiselev and Tanya Yanovsky-Kiselev

Interference (mirrored in this site)
A very nice depiction of Young's two slit experiment. Sliders all easily vary the wavelength, slit spacing, and screen distance. The relationship between the graph of the mathematical intensity function and the visual screen image is shown explicitly.
Serge G. Vtorov

RGB Additive Colors
As you look at the monitor all the colors you see are produced with just three: kinds of light: red, green, and blue! 
Raman Pfaff

Light Dispersion Through a Glass Prizm (mirrored in this site)
This applet displays a prism and two light beams (one going into the prism and the other going out). The beam on the left is white, and the beam on the right is the white beam broken into the seven rainbow colors. You can rock the prism by clicking on it. Notice the effect that various angles of incident light have on the dispersion angles.
Sergey Kiselev and Tanya Yanovsky-Kiselev

Light Dispersion Through a Glass Slab (mirrored in this site)
This applet shows a glass slab and two beams of light. The beam on the left of the slab is white and the beam on the right is the broken up version of the first beam into the seven colors of the rainbow. Rock the slab, by clicking on it, and see the effect, which various angles of incident light have on the dispersion. Note that the dispersed beam is parallel to the incident beam.
Sergey Kiselev and Tanya Yanovsky-Kiselev

The Optical Prism
A single ray is shown deviated by a prism. Sliders can vary the prism’s apex angle and the light wavelength. It's too bad that the angle of incidence cannot be varied to illustrate the angle of minimum deviation.
Andrea Mameli

Optics Simple Prism
The prism can be used to make miniature rainbows in the classroom. This virtual prism lets you see why Snell's Law can make that pretty spectrum of colors we see in the sky.
Raman Pfaff

Ottica Geometrica (mirrored in this site)
L'Ottica Geometrica studia le leggi dei raggi, schematizzandoli in rette geometriche. This Italian tutorial has two imbedded applets. The individual applets are found in translation elsewhere on our list. Ignore irrelevant text on page; scroll down and click "Start Simulation".
Andrea Mameli

Painting With CMY
It's your time to order uniforms for the school's football teams. There is one difficulty: the company which you will order from prefers to receive the order in terms of the three primary colors of paints which will be applied to different parts of the uniform. Experiment with the effect of different paint colors on the appearance of the various parts of the uniform.
Tom Henderson

Propagation of Electromagnetic Wave (mirrored in this site)
This java applet shows the 3-D relations between electric field, magnetic field and wave vector as electromagnetic waves propagate through space. Initially the y-axis polarized plane waves travel away from the origin along the x-axis. The time period can be reset and the direction of travel changed. It's a nicely animated classic.
Fu-Kwun Hwang

Rainbow (mirrored in this site)
This applet presents the physics of a rainbow. The incident light color, polarization percent, and incidence point to a water droplet can be varied to see the effect on the reflected and refracted rays.
Fu-Kwun Hwang

Ray Tracing
Explore simple ray tracing with a thin converging lens.
Raman Pfaff

Refraction of Light (mirrored in this site)
A single ray of light is incident from top left to the boundary surface of two media. It is possible to choose the media substances separately. You can vary the incidence angle with the mouse. The possibility of total internal reflection is included. Ignore irrelevant text on page; scroll down and click "Start Simulation".
Walter Fendt

Refraction of Light Demonstration (mirrored in this site)
Wavefronts of a beam of light are incident from top left to the boundary surface of two media. It is possible to choose the lower media substances. You can vary the incidence angle and the wavelength in steps. The refracted wavelength is displayed.
Phillip Dukes

RGB Lighting
A set of three lights shine on a person and cast shadows of the person on a screen in the background. Turn the various lights on and off and observe how the colors of the shadows change.
Ignore "Animation and text is still under construction." It does work after long download.
Tom Henderson

Shadow/Image and Color (mirrored in this site)
When we stand in the sunlight, some of the light is stopped while other rays pass on in a straight-line path. A shadow is formed where light rays cannot reach. This java applet lets you play with shadow and image. To make it more fun, there are 3 different colored (Red/Green/Blue) light sources. Why the colored rays come from different directions is unclear.
Fu-Kwun Hwang

Single-Slit Diffraction (mirrored in this site)
This applet shows the simplest case of diffraction, i.e., single slit diffraction. You can change the color of the light by dragging or clicking the spectrum selector. You may also change the width of the slit by dragging one of the sides. The relationship between the graph of the mathematical intensity function and the visual screen image is shown explicitly.
Sergey Kiselev and Tanya Yanovsky-Kiselev

Subtractive Colors
The colors you see around you on cars, plants, etc., are due to color subtraction.
Raman Pfaff

Superposition Principle of Wave (mirrored in this site)
This java applet shows the superposition of two waves moving oppositely through the same region of a space that is initially undisturbed. The shared wave speed, relative phase, and each wave's frequency and amplitude can be reset.
Fu-Kwun Hwang

The Electromagnetic Spectrum
Click or drag with the mouse in the electromagnetic spectrum window to view the parameters of wavelength, frequency, and energy. Use the select boxes at right to choose your units.
Guy Kenneth McArthur

The Transmission of Wave Through Dense Media -- Reflection and Refraction (mirrored in this site)
Wavefronts that are constructed by Huygens' wavelets, of a beam of light are incident from top left to the boundary surface of two media. It is possible to choose the media substances or set their relative index. You can vary the incidence angle and the incident wave speed. The reflected and refracted wavefronts that are also constructed by Huygens’ wavelets are displayed along with the angles of reflection and refraction. The possibility of total internal reflection is included.
Fu-Kwun Hwang

The World Above The Water Surface Viewed From Fish Eyes (mirrored in this site)
See how a goldfish perceives a rectangle.
Fu-Kwun Hwang

Thin Lens/Mirror (mirrored in this site)
Explore simple ray tracing with a thin/thick lens/mirror and with/without the paraxial approximation using principle rays.
Fu-Kwun Hwang

Total Internal Reflection (mirrored in this site)
Sweep back and forth the beam of a source of light at the bottom of the lake to see the reflected and sometimes refracted beams.
Sergey Kiselev and Tanya Yanovsky-Kiselev

Young's Double Slit Interference (mirrored in this site)
A very nice depiction of Young's two slit experiment. Sliders all easily vary the wavelength, slit spacing, and screen distance. The relationship between the graph of the mathematical intensity function and the visual screen image is shown explicitly.
Serge G. Vtorov

Polarization Filter
This is a five page tutorial on polarization in conversational form with embedded applets. It has a link to a similar eight-page tutorial on laptop screens whose operation involves polarization.
Physics 2000, University of Colorado at Boulder

Effect of Several Polarization Filters
This is a jump to page three of the preceding Polarization Filter tutorial.
Physics 2000, University of Colorado at Boulder

Polarization By a Hydrocarbon Molecule
This is a jump to an associated applet of page three in the preceding Polarization Filter tutorial. It presents schematically a zoomed view showing a polarized beam hitting a single molecule. The incident beam angle, molecule angle, and view angle can all be adjusted with sliders. As the molecule and incident beam are aligned, an emergent beam nicely fades into view.
Ignore "This page is currently under construction." It does work after download.
Physics 2000, University of Colorado at Boulder

Effect of More Polarization Filters
This is a jump to page four of the preceding Polarization Filter tutorial.
Physics 2000, University of Colorado at Boulder

WEBTOP: Polarization VRML
It needs an x-VRML type plugin.
Mississippi State University

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Miscellaneous

Vernier (mirrored in this site)
This elegant java applet shows you how to read a vernier. Slide the caliper jaw to a position and type in your observation for evaluation, or let the applet give you the correct answer.
Fu-Kwun Hwang

Reverse The Field
Can you deal with point and click when the mouse does not behave in a typical fashion?
Raman Pfaff

Sight vs. Sound Reflex
Test your response time to different inputs.
Raman Pfaff

Time Estimation
A watched pot never boils! Is this true, or does it just involve making accurate time estimates? Try to estimate when 1 minute has passed.
Raman Pfaff

E & M Intro to Plasma
Raman Pfaff

Oscillating 3D Crystal (mirrored in this site)
This applet shows the atomic vibrations of an anharmonic-localized mode in an fcc structure diatomic crystal cell. Such modes can exist only due to nonlinearity in the interatomic interaction. You can rotate the crystal by dragging it with the mouse.
Sergey Kiselev and Tanya Yanovsky-Kiselev

Periodic Table (mirrored in this site)

Periodic Table
For elements up thru Kr, click the box and see a nuclear/shell view of nucleons/electrons moving, some facts, a visible light spectrum, and the orbital filling structure.
Physics 2000, University of Colorado at Boulder

Extended Periodic Table
Click the box and see the orbital filling structure. Put the curser over an electron in the diagram and its ionization energy appears.
Physics 2000, University of Colorado at Boulder

Snow Flake Designer
Folding a piece of paper and pulling out the scissors is always fun near the holidays. If you want to 'design' your snowflake before slicing the paper, start here! Compare the symmetry of your creations to nature's snowflakes.
Raman Pfaff

The Laser (mirrored in this site)
This applet illustrates a schematic operation of a laser. The yellow photons represent the pumping radiation. The group of red photons is the coherent laser beam. The balls mark the atoms making transitions between three energy levels. The applet is equivalent to an animated gif with no interaction.
Sergey Kiselev and Tanya Yanovsky-Kiselev

Toda Lattice Solitons (mirrored in this site)
A Toda lattice is a monatomic chain of particles with a specific interaction (given in the applet) between nearest-neighbors. The applet allows you to watch propagating solitons in a lattice of 15 particles with fixed boundaries. The evolution of the chain is calculated by the molecular-dynamics technique. You can launch either a wide soliton or a sharp one. You can also see non-destructive collisions of two sharp solitons. If you wait for a while you will see a power spectrum of the particles' vibrations.
Sergey Kiselev and Tanya Yanovsky-Kiselev

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Modern Physics

An Example of Time Dilatation (mirrored in this site)
A spaceship is flying a distance of 5 light hours, for example from Earth to the planet Pluto. The speed can be regulated with the upper buttons. The applet demonstrates that the clock in the spaceship goes more slowly then the two clocks of Earth and Pluto that are motionless. The Lorentz Contraction of the spaceship is not taken into consideration, in order to make it possible to read off the spaceship's clock. The ship's speed can be varied.
Walter Fendt

Length Contraction
Investigate Einstein's concept of length contraction. A spaceship carrying a billboard zooms by Earth. Change the speed of the spaceship and watch the dimensions of the billboard change as viewed by observers on Earth. Soon you will recognize why our conception of length breaks down in a relativistic world.
Tom Henderson

Photo Electric Effect (mirrored in this site)
Set the emitter material, photon energy, and stopping potential. Then see if an electron gets out and to the collector to cause a current reading. Ignore irrelevant text on page; scroll down and click "Start Simulation".
Michael Vershinin

Time Dilation
Investigate Einstein's concept of time dilation. A pulse of light reflects off two mirrors in a spaceship. Set the speed of the spaceship and watch from Earth as the spaceship zooms by. Soon you will recognize why our conception of time breaks down in a relativistic world.
Tom Henderson

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Quantum Mechanics

Quantum Mechanical Scattering (mirrored in this site)
This complex Java applet integrates the 1-D Schrödinger wave equation with periodic boundary conditions in the presence of various selectable barriers and wells. The wave function Psi(x,t) is initially a gaussian wave packet moving to the right. The wave function, Psi(x,t), is shown. The height of the curve is determined by the probability density p(x,t) = |Psi(x,t)|2  with the color chosen directly from Psi(x,t) by a mapping described in Visualizing Complex Functions. The real and imaginary parts of Psi(x,t) are shown in blue and green. The potential energy function v(x) is shown in red. Ignore irrelevant text on page; scroll down and click "Start Simulation".
John L. Richardson

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Nuclear Physics

Absorption and Emission of Radiation by an Atom (mirrored in this site)
This applet is not interactive. It is equivalent to an animated gif and portrays its title in cartoon form for a two level atom.
Sergey Kiselev and Tanya Yanovsky-Kiselev

Atomic Emission
In a five level energy diagram click on an excited level to start. Then click on a lower level and watch the emission photon(s) represented by wave symbols and wavelength amounts appear. Under construction?
Sean Russell, Amy McGrew, and Greg Bothun

Beta Decay
The lower portion of the nucleic chart is shown (up to atomic mass 23). Selecting a box presents an image of a rotating nucleus model of spherical protons and neutrons together with a stable/unstable label. Unstable nuclei then beta-decay graphically and the daughter isotope box is automatically selected on the chart.
Physics 2000, University of Colorado at Boulder

Half Life
Pick an isotope from the menu and click the "start" button. You'll see the nuclei randomly change color in a diagram as they decay and see a graph showing the number of nuclei of each type versus time.
Physics 2000, University of Colorado at Boulder

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